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PSYC 100 Chapter Notes -Homophily, Gender Identity, Gender Role

Course Code
PSYC 100
Jon Miller

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Week 18: Social Development
Inductive Discipline
- Guiding behaviours, introducing appropriate limits, setting up reasonable consequences
while explaining why
Baumrind’s Styles of Parenting
- Authoritative
oExplain reasons behind rules; unlikely to use physical discipline
oSet firm rules and uphold them, but high degree of freedom within boundaries
Social competence, self-confidence
Better self-regulation, quick adaptation
- Authoritarian
oDiscipline using threats and punishment
oExpect children to follow rules without explanation
Unhappy, lack social competence
Conform to expectations but lack self-confidence
Anxiety, increased aggression
- Permissive
oAllow children freedom in regulating their own lives
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oPlace few demands
Impulsive, irresponsible; react more intensely to conflict
High confidence, low performance
- Rejecting-neglectful
oDo not set limits or monitor activities; may be discouraging
oMore engaged in meeting own needs rather than their children’s
Less competent, low perception of self, anti-social
Lack self-regulation, prone to substance abuse, depression
Parenting and Genes
- Amount of attention and nursing style can change genes affecting:
oHormonal stress responses
oFear responses
oAdaptability to new environments
- High nurturing = calmer
- Inconsistent nurturing = anxiety
- Social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans time and space
- Stages
Birth to 6 weeks
Infant remains close to caregiver; reliant on them for food, protection,
Is not distressed when left in care of someone who is not the primary
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