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Chapter

Social Development.


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Social Development 6/5/2012 7:01:00 AM
Social Brain Hypothesis
Explains the evolution of intelligence
The reason that humans , chimps, and dolphins have developed
brains so large is to meet the cognitive demands of social living
o Constant competition in the environment
o Competition for resources and mates within the same species
The reason for the evolutionary growth of the brain is to provide an
advantage to social creatures over others of their species
Models
People who we have opportunity to observe and by doing so, we
learn to behave appropriately
o Anyone in our environment can be a model
o Early in life or social world is dominated by care givers
Punishment
We learn appropriate behaviour and inappropriate behaviour
through enforcement rules by caregivers
o Consistent punishment can reduce unwanted behaviour
o Positive punishment is less effect than positive reinforcement
Punishment can provide behaviour changes and does
not teach children to behaviour appropriately in the long
term
Martin Hoffman
Types of discipline experienced by children affect their empathy and
moral decision making
o Induction was most responsible for empathetic moral
development
Involved highlighting to the child the consequences of
their actions on others while disciplining them
Encourages development of feelings of empathy and
guilt, and increase levels of Prosocial behaviour
Baumrinds 4 styles of parenting

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Early work describing how caregivers raise their children and how
they affect the outcomes children experience
2 styles of how psrents engage in two style interaction with their
children
o Parental demandingness
Parents behavioral expectations for the child
o Parental responsiveness
The amount of support the caregiver provides for the
child and the extent to which they meet the child’s
needs
First style of parenting authoritative
o Highly demanding and highly responsive
o Unlikely to physically discipline, will explain to the child the
reasons behind the rules
o Reason their children
o High rules -> higher freedom within the boundaries
Children tend to become self confident
Do well in school and feel good about themselves and
supported by their parents
Better self regulation and quicker to adapt to new
situations
Best outcomes
Second style authoritarian
o Highly demanding of their children, inflexible about deviations
from expected behaviour
o Less responsive to their child’s need
o Discipline through threats or punishment
o Praise obedience as a virtue and follow rules without
expectation
Children raise may be unhappy and lack social
competence
Conform well to stands of adults but lack self confidence
Unsure of themselves in social situations and look for
guidance of authority figures
Use of physical discipline is associated with aggressive
behaviour and anxiety

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3rd style is permissive
o Place few demands on children, highly responsive to them
o Believe children learn best on their own, allow children
freedom
Children often have difficulty with controlling impulses
and acting responsibly
Report in self confidence but do poor in school and
engage in substance abuse
4th style is rejecting neglectful parenting
o Disengaged from their children and are neither demanding or
responsive of them.
o Do not set limitations or monitor their activities
o Parents are more concerned with meeting their own needs
rather than their children
Children may be anti social and can be prone to
substance abuse
More likely to internalize their problems leading to
depression and social difficulties
Parenting Behaviours
Teaching
o One form of parental interactions
o Some skills are acquired though obersavtion of a skiled other
Model does not have to actively teach
Behaviour benefits learner but not themselves
Presence of naïve individuals
Attachment
Attachment bond
o Konrad Lorenz
Fixed action patterns
Types of behaviours or learning that are elicited in
response to specific stimuli without any prior
experience
Imprinting
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