PSYC 100 Chapter Notes -Medial Forebrain Bundle, Arcuate Nucleus, Basal Ganglia

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Published on 5 Jun 2012
School
Queen's University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Motivation
The “why’s” of behaviour
The desires, needs, and interests that arouse and activate an
organism to move towards a specific goal
Affects nature, strength and persistence of an individuals
behaviour
o Motivational states
o Drives
Eg. Eating, sexual behaviour, aggression
Intrinsic motivation
o Motives that result from an internal need
Extrinsic motivation
o Motives that based on gaining a reward or avoiding an
unpleasant consequence
Theories of Motivation
Instinct
o Focuses on biological drives that seem to control and
direct behaviour
o Unlearned and universal in species
Eg. Hunting, rivalry, cleanliness, curiosity, fear
Clark Hull’s Drive Theory of Motivation
o Suggested that motivated behaviour resulted from an
internal drive
Drive
A tension or arousal that results from an
unmet need
Just a response to some need
Drive fuels behaviour
o Scientific advantage
One can manipulate needs and measure level of
motivation
Eg. Making an organism hungry increases
arousal and therefore increases motivation
o Homwostasis
Organisms have needs
Needs lead to drives
Motivated bejaviour is a form of drive reduction
Homeostasis brings equilibrium
Our bodies try to maintain a balanced state
o Problems?
Some external behaviours can override apparent
homeostatic mechanisms
Eg. Doing anything for money
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Document Summary

The desires, needs, and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move towards a specific goal. Affects nature, strength and persistence of an individuals behaviour: motivational states, drives. Intrinsic motivation: motives that result from an internal need. Extrinsic motivation: motives that based on gaining a reward or avoiding an unpleasant consequence. Instinct: focuses on biological drives that seem to control and direct behaviour, unlearned and universal in species. Clark hull"s drive theory of motivation: suggested that motivated behaviour resulted from an internal drive. A tension or arousal that results from an unmet need. One can manipulate needs and measure level of motivation. Making an organism hungry increases arousal and therefore increases motivation: homwostasis. Motivated bejaviour is a form of drive reduction. Some external behaviours can override apparent homeostatic mechanisms. Hunger is the drive for eating: internal factors that influence eating behaviour. Arcuate nucleus appetite control center : external factors. Rewards: esb electrical stimulation in the brain.

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