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PSYC 100 Chapter Notes -Longitudinal Study, 18 Months, Moral Development

Course Code
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Prosocial Development
Can include altruistic acts but also actions such as helping,
cooperating, comforting and other behaviour that are
beneficial to someone else but may also benefit the person
performing the act
Refers to acts performed primarily for the benefit of another
person and at a cost to the person performing the actions
o Eg. Donations
o When a person witnesses another person’s emotional
state and is emotionally affected by it themselves
One potential reason for this type of behaviour is the
predisposition to engage in helping behaviour provided by our
ancestors to gain an evolutionary advantage
o When you have helped someone they are more likely to
help you in the future
Anti social and Bullying Behaviour
Can be seen in 18 months, increase in frequency
Physical aggression peaks around 2.5 years, decreases
o Verbal aggression increases when child learns to master
o Most aggression towards others is for the purpose of
gaining something
o Aggression turns defensive with age
Can be sex differences in ways anti social behaviour is
o Across cultures males seem to be more aggressive than
Females demonstrate indirect aggression
Kohlberg’s theory of development
Longitudinal studies
o The participants in the beginning of the experiment are
tested and retested at several points in the course of
their lives.
o Would ask the same questions at different points in
their lives
o Believed that humans pass through a series of stages of
moral reasoning
o 3 levels, 7 stages
o Ages are less important, not everyone passes through
all stages
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