PSYC 235 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Fetus, Erotophobia, Dyspareunia

64 views7 pages
7 Apr 2015
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Chapter 10 – Sexual Disorders and Gender Identity Disorder
-Gender Identity Disorder: psychological dissatisfaction with his/her biological
sex. A disturbance in one’s identity as a male or female
-Sexual Dysfunction: find it difficult to function adequately during sex
-Paraphilia: sexual arousal occurs primarily in the context on inappropriate
objects or individuals
What is Normal?
Gender Differences
- “sexual self schemas”  women tend to feel more embarrassed or self-conscious
of their sexuality. Men do not generally possess negative beliefs about their
sexuality.
- Sexual attraction and behaviour is closely tied to evolution
oGood looking males have more sperm
oFemales with good looking bodies are more fertile
Cultural Differences
- what is normal sexual behaviour in one country may not be normal in another.
This must be considered when diagnosing a sexual disorder
The Development of Sexual Orientation
- homosexuality runs in families  possible gene on the X chromosome
- actual structure of the brain may be different in homosexuals than heterosexuals
- homosexuals have a greater chance of being left-handed than heterosexuals
- Homosexuality requires an interplay with biological, psychological, and
environmental factors. Rarely is it caused by just one
- Males growing up with older brothers are more likely to be homosexual  each
additional older brother increased the odds of homosexuality by 1/3
- “exotic is erotic”
Gender Identity Disorder
- sense of being male or female typically formed by age 3 or 4
- Gender Identity Disorder: occurs if a persons physical gender is inconsistent with
their sense of identity
- Primary goal is not sexual, but rather to live life openly in a manner consistent
with that of the other gender
- Not all gender disordered individuals are attracted to the same sex. In fact, the
majority of male-to-female individuals are heterosexual
- 3 times more likely to occur in males than in females
Causes
- genetic vulnerability
- slightly higher levels of testosterone or estrogen during critical periods of
development might masculinize a female or feminize a male fetus
-Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH): when brains of females (fetus) are
flooded with male hormones, which among other results, produce mostly
masculine external genitalia, although internal organs (ovaries, etc.) remain
female.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
- Other factors that may lead to effeminate boys: excessive attention and physical
contact by mother, lack of male playmates during early years, mother wanting a
girl and thus treating the boy in a feminine way
Treatment
-sex reassignment surgery: altering the anatomy physically to be consistent with
the identity
oto qualify for this surgery, individual must live in the opposite sex role for
1-2 years so they can be sure they want a sex change (ex. Male wanting a
sex change to a woman must live as a woman for 2 years first)
ohormones given, body parts removed/added
- Treatment of Intersexuality (hermaphrodites)
oReconsidering giving the baby a specific gender early on. Rather, wait
until they can be sure the baby will adopt one particular gender identity
before performing the irreversible surgery
- Psychosocial Treatment
oTherapy can be used to teach an individual how to think/act as only one
gender. (ex. By teaching them how to act solely masculine, and be
attracted only to women  this takes time but can be effective)
oUsually used if surgery options are not available
Sexual Dysfunctions: Clinical Descriptions
- 3 stages of the sexual response cycle: desire, arousal, and orgasm
- only 2 sexual dysfunctions are sex specific: premature ejaculation and vaginismus
(painful contraction of the vagina during attempted penetration)
- can be lifelong or acquired
- can be general (with all partners) or situational (with only some partners)
- can be either psychological, or psychological mixed with a medical condition
Sexual Desire Disorders
- Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
oLittle or not interest in any type of sexual activity
oVery common, especially in women
- Sexual Aversion Disorder
oThe thought of sex or a brief touch may evoke fear, panic, or disgust
oMay actually be a panic disorder, with an alarm response associated with
the physical sensations of sex
oMajorly occurs in women
oBasically anxiety or panic focused on sexual activity
- Sexual Arousal Disorders
oMale erectile disorder & female sexual arousal disorder
oDifficulty maintaining erection/lubrication
oMore often than not, men can still achieve erections during masturbation,
just not during attempted sex
oMore common in men, because many women don’t consider absence of
arousal a problem
- Orgasm Disorders
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class