PSYC 235 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Impulsivity, Dopamine Transporter

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7 Apr 2015
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Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
- inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, impatience, acting without thinking
- two types:
oinattention
ohyperactivity  includes impulsivity, fidgeting, acting without thinking
- engage in more risky behaviours
- problems with relationships often result in low self esteem
- four times as common in boys
- often comorbid with disruptive behaviour disorders and learning disorders
Causes
oGenetic  family history of ADHD increases chances of other
psychological disorders
oLow dopamine  D4 (receptor), D5, DAT1 (dopamine transporter gene)
oEnvironmental  prenatal smoking or alcohol consumption, low birth
weight
oBrain size smaller  frontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellar vermis
Treatment
oStimulant medications, often in combination with psychosocial treatment
oReinforcement programs  reward good behaviour, take away rewards for
bad behaviour
oTraining parents to deal with certain behaviours
Learning Disorders
-reading disorder/dyslexia: significant discrepancy between a persons reading
achievement and what would be expected for someone of the same age
-mathematics disorder: achievement below expected performance
-disorder of written expression: below expected performance in writing
- most common developmental disability
- learning disorders increase risk for substance abuse, language disorders increase
risk for psychiatric disorders
Causes:
oGenetic, neurobiological and environmental
oBrain damage, neurological deficits in processing information
oCultural and parental expectations, parental interactions
Treatment:
oInitial assessment = intelligence test and achievements tests
oEducational intervention (particularly teaching certain skills)
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
- all involve problems with language, socialization and cognition
- major and significantly impact patients throughout their lives
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Document Summary

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, impatience, acting without thinking two types: inattention, hyperactivity (cid:224) includes impulsivity, fidgeting, acting without thinking engage in more risky behaviours problems with relationships often result in low self esteem four times as common in boys often comorbid with disruptive behaviour disorders and learning disorders, genetic (cid:224) family history of adhd increases chances of other psychological disorders, low dopamine (cid:224) d4 (receptor), d5, dat1 (dopamine transporter gene, environmental (cid:224) prenatal smoking or alcohol consumption, low birth weight, brain size smaller (cid:224) frontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellar vermis, stimulant medications, often in combination with psychosocial treatment, reinforcement programs (cid:224) reward good behaviour, take away rewards for bad behaviour, training parents to deal with certain behaviours. Causes: combination biological contributions, certain medical conditions (viruses, herpes, genetic (cid:224) strong genetic component, neurobiological influences (cid:224) fewer neurons in amygdala (involved in anxiety and fear). smaller cerebellum lower levels of oxytocin (responsible for increasing trust and reduce fear)

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