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Chapter 1

PSYC 251 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Inter-Rater Reliability, Little Albert Experiment, Dependent And Independent Variables


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 251
Professor
Elizabeth Kelley
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1
1.2 Why should we study developmental psychology?
Raising Children
Childe dot oe ith a aual
Discipline often a big question
o Children often remember the punishment but not why they were punished
Inductive parenting best
o Explaining to them what they did wrong, why its wrong and what to do in future
o Not physical punishment (not effective)
Turtle technique quite effective (cope w anger)
o Used in children who have emotion regulation difficulty
o Some children are quicker to anger than others
o Children squat down like turtle and think about why they are upset, how to control; once calm,
they can resume activity/ interactions
Choosing Social Policies (shape various aspects:)
Should children be held back or passed if they are not doing well?
o If child is passed onto next grade w out learning the material, not helpful for their self-esteem
either
How effective is health education? - more effective now
o Drinking and driving
o Hazards of smoking
Should children be allowed to testify?
o They are, but need to be careful
o Children faced w repeated questioning often change their responses or eventually corroborate w
questioner's incorrect beliefs
Childe oe poe to leadig uestios tha adults
o Must be careful of how the questions are phrased
Compliance issues and imagination
o Children are able to distinguish btwn imaginary and reality
Understanding Human Nature
How do our experiences shape us?
Romanian orphanage adoptees
o 1980s-90s: a lot children in orphanages in Romania
o Romanian children adopted w in 6 months has similar IQ to English adopted children
o Avg IQ drops w later adopted children
o Longer maltreatment occurs, suffer more over time
Timing of experiences influences their effects (IQ)
How children overcome effects of early maltreatment is affected by its timing (age at which
maltreatment occurs and ends)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Reasons for studying developmental psychology (summary):
1. Improve one's own child-rearing
2. Help society promote well-being of children in general
3. To better understand human nature
1.3 Historical Influences
What are the historical foundations of the study of child development?
Early Philosophers
Plato: kids are born with conceptual knowledge (nature)
Aristotle: all knowledge arises from experience (nurture)
Locke: "tabula rasa" (=blank slate) and setting good examples
o Supported Aristotle
o child's development is reflection of nurture provided by parents and society
Rousseau: children learn from their own interactions with the world rather than by parents/teachers
o Believed children do no need formal education before age 12
Beginnings of Research
Bega i 8s
Effected by 2 forces:
1. Social Reform: Early movements devoted to improve child's life by changing conditions in which
they lived
Industrial Revolution of 18/19th century: many children in Europe & USA worked as poorly
paid laborers
Childe shouldt e okig fo log hous
Need education
2. Theory of Evolution (Darwin)
Ontogeny reflected phylogeny
Development of children reflect through evolution
Influence on topics such as infant's attachment to mothers, innate dear of nature dangers, sex
diff, aggression and altruism, learning
Freud's psychoanalytic theory: biological drives (i.e. sexual ones) are crucial influence on development
o importance of parenting in later child developments
Watson's behaviorist theory: child's development is determined by env factors (rewards and
punishments that follow particular event and behaviour)
Video: Little Albert
Watson showed that you could condition fear and the generalization of fear
o Fear of mice, generalized to fear of anything furry and moving
Also relevant as ethical standards much different in those days
1.4 Key Themes
Seven major themes that will run throughout the course
1. Nature and Nurture
Nature: genes we receive from our parents
o biological (genes) influence physical appearance, personality, intellectual ability, mental health ..etc
Nurture: all of the physical and social environment
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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