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Chapter 9

PSYC 251 Chapter 9: for Week 7

Course Code
PSYC 251
Elizabeth Kelley

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Week 8: Theories of Social Development (CHAPTER 9)
Video: Albert Bandura's Bobo Doll experiment
Seeing others vent aggression may influence viewer's aggressive drive
Exposure to aggressive modeling increases exposure to guns, hostile language
Changed from direct reinforcement to vicarious reinforcement
Opened up the field of studying the effects of watching aggression and led to his
reciprocal determinism theory
o Children who are already innately prone to aggression become more aggressive over
• Foudatioal theorists-Freud, Erikson, Watson, Skinner, Bandura
• Soial Cogitio Theories
• Dodge’s Iforatio-Processing Theory
• Dek’s Attriutio ad Motiatio Theor
• Geeral Ethologial/ Eolutioar Theories
Brofereer’s Bioeologial Model
• Reeer NO i-person lecture
7.1 Foundational Theorists
2 perspectives:
o Psychoanalytic: focused on subconscious
Can't test
o Behavioural: focused on reaction to subconscious
Freud’s Pshoseual theor (psychoanalysis)
No longer used in psychology but influential because one of the first to talk
about the importance of childhood and parenting
o Child rearing, relationship w parents, childhood experience and its effect on later
Children have to resolve a sexual conflict at each stage or remain stuck in that stage
Erikso’s Pshosoial theor
Also seldom used although still popular in education
Believed child needs to develop own identity separate from parents
Also believed in stages with conflicts to resolve
o but instead of sexual conflicts, he believed conflicts involved becoming an
idepedet perso ad forig oe’s o idetit
o Forming sense of self and doing things on one's own
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Watso’s Classial Coditioig
Early behaviourist
Believed he could raise any children to be anything via classical conditioning
o importance of environment
o Not important what you're born with but rather how you're raised
Paired associates in conditioning (Little Albert experiment)
o Taught little Albert to be afraid of little rabbit
Systematic desensitization still used for treating phobias
o Classical conditioning to get rid of fear by systematically pairing fear w something
that is relaxing/ pleasant feeling
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
Reward or punishment of behaviour to increase or decrease behaviour
Intermittent reinforcement most resistant to extinction
o Intermittent: Only reinforce certain times (not consistent)
Important to be consistent and not give in
Behavior modification works well with problem behaviors
Have to remember that anything can be a reinforcer
Social Learning Theory: Bandura
Vicarious reinforcement: lear fro others’ eperiees Boo doll
o Do’t eed to e reifored diretl; a lear fro athig others
Reciprocal determinism: child seeks out certain types of experiences
o Children prone to certain behaviours
o Because they seek out these behaviours, they become more reinforced
o E.g. child prone to violent tendencies gets reinforced when playing violet games w
other kids. Play more violent games together, becomes desensitized to aggression in
other contexts. Then more aggressive w peers and further commits w violent game
group (rejected from other peer groups)
Perceived self-efficacy affects what behaviours you choose
o Choose behaviours that you believe your good at
o Somewhat determines peer group and who you interact w
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