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Chapter 14

PSYC 251 Chapter 14: for Week 11

Course Code
PSYC 251
Elizabeth Kelley

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Week 11 Moral Development (CHAPTER 13, 14)
Video: Early Empathy
As Hoffman noted, young children experience empathy but do not always know how to
o Ask mother to help
o Child becomes somewhat distressed as well
Empathetic parenting is important for developing empathy in one's children
Video: Children's answers to Heinz's Dilemma
6 year old: believes Heinz should not steal the drug because police may catch him
9 year old: believes Heinz should steal the drug so he can save his wife
o Believes not all people do everything they can to obey the law because law may be
16 year old: believes Heinz should steal the drug since there is no other option to save his
wife and dealer was not being fair
o Believes life is more valuable
o Believes in general, people should do everything they can abide the law but believes
there are instances when its okay to break it
Young children in Kohlberg's preconventional stage
Not a tonne of difference btwn the other two although the 16 year-old shows a few signs
of post-conventional stage w prompting (but not close to stage 6)
• Piaget’s Theo of Moal Deelopet
• Kohleg’s Theo of Moal Deelopet
• Eiseeg’s Theo of Posoial Moal Deelopet
• The Development of Conscience
• Fatos Affetig Posoial Behaiou Deelopet
• Fatos Affetig Atisoial Behaiou Deelopet
• Pee Rejetio
. Piaget’s Theory of Moral Developet
Both Piaget and Kohlberg believe its important to consider reasoning behind the
behaviour in order to determine whether a behaviour is deemed moral or immoral
Piaget’s Theo of Moal Deelopet
Piaget said go from a rigid acceptance of the rules (things cannot be changes) to
understanding of circumstances (its okay to break the rules in certain circumstances)
Watched kids playing games
Also gave them vignettes to interpret
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Looked at if the child considered intention for behaviour
Piaget’s Stages
Morality of Constraint Stage: up to age 7
o Does not take intentions into account when determining whether a behaviour is
moral or immoral
o Rules a’t e oke: lid oediee to authoit
Believe behaviours that break the rules = bad
Behaviours that follow the rules = good
o Pay attention to consequences not intention
Think about how many things that were broken as opposed to intention
(purpose/ accidental)
o Children think about rules as real thing that exist in the world
o Imminent justice: breaking rules will be punished
o preoperation stage of cognitive development
Transitional Stage: age 7-10
o Understand rules change according to majority opinion
o Play more games (e.g. in school/ at recess) and understand that they can change the
rules if everyone else agrees
o Children begin to value fairness
Autonomous Morality Stage: age 11+
o Take intentions into account
o Punishment must fit the crime: look at fairness
Get upset when it is not fair
o Understand why we need rules
o Rules are product of social interactions
Evaluation of Piaget
Depend on cognitive maturity, amount of interaction with others, and parents
Children do increasingly think about intentions
Piaget underestimated the age at which intentions are taken into account
o Young children are able to consider intentionality of their moral reasoning when the
motives behind the behaviour are made clear (contrasts w Piaget's theory)
Authoritarian parenting: have slow moral development
o Do’t itealize ules o deelop sese of osious
Perspective-taking, Piagetian logic tasks and IQ all correlated with moral development
. Kohlerg’s Theory of Moral Developet
Kohleg’s Theo of Moal Deelopet
Influenced by Piaget: proposed discontinuous stages similar to Piaget
Gae dileas/ igettes siila to Piaget’s ut foused oe o the igettes
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o Heinz dilemma: hethe Heiz should o should’t steal as ot as ipotat to
Kohlberg as the reasoning behind the child's answer
Classified children into stages of moral development based on reasoning behind moral
o Reasoning is more important than the answer kids give
Three super-stages broken down into 6
o Do’t eed to ko su-stages
Superstage 1: Preconventional
o Focus on obedience to authority and rewards/ punishment
o Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation
Motivated by fear of punishment
o Stage 2: Instrumental & exchange orientation
Works according to best interest or equal exchange
Superstage 2: Conventional
o Based on social norms (most adolescents & adults)
o What you're supposed to do
o Stage 3: Interpersonal norms
Good to othes, do hat’s epeted of ou
o Stage 4: Social system morality
Uphold laws and contribute to society
Superstage 3: Post-conventional
o Some adults: not generally reached until 25
o Stage 5: Social contract or individual rights orientation
Good of society, though some individual rights universal and supersede
o Stage 6: Universal ethical principles
Justice over law; abstract principles supersede laws
Believe morally right behaviour involves universal principles of justice
Most don't get to stage 6
Ealuatio of Kohleg’s Theo
Cross-sectional study of indv from age 10 - 36
o Very few indv at age 10 used stage 1 reasoning; by age 18, this stage had dropped
out (Stage 1 was used more in younger ages)
o Stage 2 was most common reasoning and dropped during adolescence and
o Stage 3: increased in adolescence
o Stage 4: became increasingly more popular w age
o Stage 5: not many ppl used
Very few people reach stage 6
Kohlberg continued to say discontinuous stages
o Stages has aspects of continuity
o Stages were used in various ways depending on the questions being asked
Related to cognitive ability and perspective-taking
Medium relationship between moral reasoning and moral behavior
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