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Chapter 17

PSYC 370 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Adrenalectomy, Macrophage


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 370
Professor
Prof
Chapter
17

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Psyc370 Chapter 17: Biopsychology of Emotion, Stress, and Health
Fear has been central to the study of emotion for 3 reasons:
oEasiest emotion to infer from variety of species
oPlays an important adaptive function
oChronic fear induces stress
17.1 Biopsychology of Emotion: Introduction
Early Landmarks in the Biopsychological Investigation of Emotion
oPhineas Gage  rod through head + brain. Once recovered, remained as
able-bodied and intellectual as before, but personality and emotional life
had completely changed. Became impulsive, unreliable, and offensive
Areas affected were both medial prefrontal lobes  key to planning
and emotion
oDarwin’s Theory of the Evolution of Emotion
Darwin’s book  The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals
Believed that expressions of emotion are products of evolution 
tried to understand them by comparing different species
Darwin’s theory of evolution of emotional expression had 3 main
tenets:
Emotions evolved from behaviours that indicate what an
animal is likely to do next
If the emotions benefit the animal, they are likely to evolve
to enhance their communicative function
Opposite messages are often signaled by opposite
movements and postures  principle of antithesis
oJames-Lange and Cannon-Bard Theories
James Lange  first physiological theory of emotion
James-Lange Theory: the theory that emotion results from the
brain’s perception of the pattern of autonomic and somatic nervous
system responses elicited by emotion-inducing sensory stimuli
(perception  physiological reaction  emotion)
We derive emotion from our physiological response to a
stimuli. Reverse common-sense view
Cannon-Bard Theory: the theory that emotional experience and
emotional expression are parallel processes that have no direct
causal relation  physiological response and emotion both occur in
response to a stimuli, but the 2 are independent processes.
Both proved incorrect. Modern biopsychological view says all 3
factors influence each other in emotional expression
oSham Rage

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Sham Rage: the exaggerated, poorly directed aggressive responses
of decorticate (lacking a cortex) animals
Animals show sham rage if cortex is removed, but not if
hypothalamus is removed. Concluded that hypothalamus key for
expression of aggression and cortex key for inhibiting aggressive
responses
oLimbic System and Emotion:
Limbic System: a collection of interconnected nuclei and tracts
that borders the thalamus and is widely assumed to play a role in
emotion
Amygdala, mammillary body, hippocampus, fornix, cortex
of cingulate gyrus, septum, olfactory bulb, and
hypothalamus
Emotional states are expressed through the action of the other
structures of the circuit on the hypothalamus
oKluver-Bucy Syndrome:
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome: the syndrome of behavioural changes
(e.g, lack of fear and hypersexuality) that is induced in primates by
bilateral damage to the anterior temporal lobes
Other symptoms: consumption of anything edible, repeated
investigation of familiar objects, investigation of objects
with the mouth, very tame and calm since no fear
The syndrome appears to result from damage to Amygdala:
structure in the temporal lobe, plays a role in emotion
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System
oEmotional Specificity of the Autonomic Nervous System:
Evidence shows that not all emotions have same physiological
response (ANS) activity, but not enough evidence to support the
view that every emotion has a distinct response
oPolygraphy:
Polygraphy: a method of interrogation in which autonomic
nervous system indexes of emotion are used to infer the
truthfulness of the responses
Control-Question Technique: a lie-detection interrogation
method in which the polygrapher compares the physiological
responses to target questions with the responses to control
questions
Average success rate = 80%. Although less likely to detect
lies in real life than in experiments
Detects changes in emotion, not lies per se
Guilty-Knowledge Technique: a lie-detection method in which
the polygrapher records autonomic nervous system responses to a
list of control and crime-related information known only to the
guilty person and the examiner
Average success rate = 88%

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Emotions and Facial Expression
oUniversality of Facial Expression:
Studies found that a number of facial expressions of emotion were
identified correctly cross-culturally. Ex. New Guinea tribe
oPrimary Facial Expressions (6):
Surprise, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, and happiness
oFacial Feedback Hypothesis:
Facial Feedback Hypothesis: the hypothesis that our facial
expressions can influence how we feel  confirmed
oVoluntary Control of Facial Expression:
2 ways to distinguish true expressions from false ones:
1. Micro-expressions  brief facial expressions (0.5 second)
of real emotion that often break through the false one
2. Subtle differences between genuine & false facial
expressions  ex. Duchenne smile
Duchenne Smile: a genuine smile, one that includes contraction of
the facial muscles called the orbicularis oculi (area around the eye
that moves when we smile)
Zygomaticus major muscles around lip that can be moved
voluntarily to smile
oFacial Expressions: Current Perspectives:
The 6 primary expressions rarely occur in pure form  are ideals
with many subtle variations
Evidence for possible adding embarrassment & contempt to the
original 6
17.2 Fear, Defense, and Aggression
Fear: the emotional reaction that is normally elicited by the presence of
expectation of threatening stimuli
Defensive Behaviours: behaviours whose primary function is protection from
threat or harm
Aggressive Behaviours: behaviours whose primary function is to threaten or
harm other organisms
Difficulty in studying emotion  must look outside our own cultural understanding
of emotion
Types of Aggressive and Defensive Behaviours
oBlanchard & Blanchard the colony-intruder model of aggression and
defense in rats
oStudy of cat’s interaction with mice. 3 options: attack, defensive, play.
Found that play was just a combination of attack and defense sequences.
Injecting cat with antianxiety drug led cats to move up on the
aggression scale (e.g, if started off defensive, started playing. If
started off playing, started attacking, etc.)
oCategories of aggressive & defensive behaviours in rats & other species:
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