PSYC 400 Chapter 9: Online Learning and Instructional Design

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29 Dec 2020
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Week 9: Online Learning and Instructional Design
Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online
learning studies (Mens et al., 2010)
How does effectiveness of online learning compare with face-to-face?
o Few rigorous studies can answer for K-12 students
o For older learners, those in online conditions performed modestly better on average than
those learning same material through face-to-face
Supplementing face-to-face with online enhances learning greater differences when comparing
just online to just in-person (where the combination of online/in-person better than just in-person
Online learning collaborative or instructor-directed while online learners work independently;
gives learning control of interactions with media; prompts learner reflection
o Providing guidance for groups will help guide interactions, but not amount they learn
Conditions that moderate the effectiveness of online learning:
o Type of learning experience
o Content
o Learner types i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate
o Equivalence of curriculum and instruction
Blended learning more effective online learning by itself is just as effective as in-person
o Maximize contact time when in-person design principles built into blended modules,
while in-person time allow for collaboration
Effects of different video lecture types on sustained attention, emotion, cognitive load and learning
performance (Chen & Wu, 2015)
Examines how 3 different video lecture styles affected sustained attention, emotion, cognitive
load, learning performance of verbalizers and visualizers in online learning
Lecture capture: recording of class lecture using video camera, allowing students to watch video
online or over digital devices
o Preserves interactivity in classroom
Picture-in-picture: overlays instructors image and lecture slides; presents recorded image and
voice, subtitles, other flash animation features
o Elaborate post-production requires; most expensive but has greatest media richness
Voice-over: lecture slides supplemented with voice-over explaining information on slides
o Lacks learning context and visual information of lecture capture i.e. class activities
Performance with lecture capture and picture-in-picture superior to voice-over
o Both verbalizers and visualizers achieve same learning performance within three types
Sustained attention higher in voice-over vs. picture-in-picture
o Sustained attention of verbalizers greater than visualizers across three types
Positive and negative emotions not significantly different within three types
Cognitive load in voice-over greater than lecture capture and picture-in-picture
o Greater for visualizers than verbalizers
Combining best-practice and experimental approaches: redundancy, images, and misperceptions in
multimedia learning (Fenesi et al., 2014)
Best practice: uses actual course content; learning materials not exclusively created for research
Experimental: manipulates specific variables, measures their impacts on learning
Learning with redundant text led to inconsistency between actual and perceived understanding,
whereas learning with images and complementary text promoted enhanced actual understanding
and consistency between perceived and actual understanding
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