PSYC 400 Chapter 7: Learning Styles

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29 Dec 2020
Week 7: Learning Styles
Exploring the relation between visualizer-verbalizer cognitive styles and performance with visual
or verbal learning material (Kolloffel, 2012)
Cognitive style and learning outcomes unrelated learners with preference for visual materials
didn’t necessarily perform better with visual learning materials, same for auditory
Learning results seem to be influenced by cognitive ability (spatial visualization) and the extent to
which a format affords cognitive processing
Giving students option to choose favourite format can even be counterproductive since it may
lead them to selecting a format that is less effective for learning
Stop propagating the learning styles myth (Kirschner, 2017)
Difference between learning preferences, and performance indicating efficient/effective learning
Premise that there are learners with different learning styles and that they should receive
instruction using different instructional methods that match those styles not a “proven” fact, but
rather a belief backed by little, if any, scientific evidence
o Significant empirical evidence for hypothesis almost non-existent
Lots of very fundamental problems regarding measuring learning styles
Theoretical basis for assuming interactions between learning styles and instructional methods
very thin
Concept of learning styles so ill-defined that it’s effectively useless for instruction
Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques and illusions (Bjork et al., 2013)
Learning how to learn critical but research shown learners prone to beliefs that an impair
effectiveness as learners, instead of enhance
Sophisticated learning acquire understanding of encoding and retrieval, know learning activities
and techniques that support these i.e. practice testing, spaced sessions, interleaving
Monitoring learning requires assessing how much learning has been achieved with
selection and control of ones learning activities in response to that monitoring ---->
Assessing whether learning achieved is difficult need to look at long-term
retention and transfer, but conditions under which we encode and retrieve can
create difficulties for either part
Judgements of learning affected by fluency when recalling information can be a
product of low-level priming and other factors unrelated to whether learning achieved
o Also affected by hindsight bias and foresight bias
Effective learners interpret errors and mistakes as part of learning, not as part of inadequacies
Effective learners appreciate capacity they have to learn and avoid the mindset hat one’s learning
abilities are fixed
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