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Chapter 2

Week 2 Chapter 2 Notes.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Meredith Chivers

Week 2: Chapter 2 Notes The Ways and Means of Psychology pp 28- 55 - scientific method: a set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments - naturalistic observation: the observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environment - clinical observation: the observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment - correlational study: the examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals - experiment: a study which the researcher changes the value of an interdependent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependant variable. Only experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables - hypothesis: a statements, usually designed to be tested by an experiment, that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events - theory: a set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing than a hypothesis - case study: a detailed description of an individual’s behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis - survey study: a study of people’s responses to standardized questions - variable: anything capable of assuming any of several values - manipulation: setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected - experimental group: a group of participants in an experiment the members of which are exposed to a particular value of the independent variable, which has been manipulated buy the researcher - control group: a comparison group used in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the independent variable - independent variable: the variable that is manipulated in an experiment as a means of determining cause-and-effect relations - dependant variable- the variable that is measured in an experiment - nominal fallacy: the false belief that one has explained the causes of a phenomenon by identifying and naming it; for example, believing that one has explained lazy behaviour by attributing it to “laziness” - operational definition: the definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it - validity: the degree to which the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate - confounding of variables: inadvertent simultaneous manipulation of more than one variable. The results of an experiment involving confounded variables permit no valid conclusions about cause and effect - counterbalancing: a systematic variation of condition in an experiment, such as the order of a presentation of stimuli, so that different participants encounter them in different orders; prevents confounding of independent variables with time-dependant processes such as habitution or fatigue - reliability; the repeatability of a measurement, the likelihood that if the measurement was made again it would yield the same value - interrater reliability; the degree to which two or more independent observers agree in their ratings of another organism’s behaviour - random assignment: procedure in which each participant has an equally likely chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups of an experiment - placebo: an
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