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Chapter 17

Week 4 Chapter 17 Notes.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Meredith Chivers

Week 4: Chapter 17 Notes The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders pp 544- 571 Definitions - etiology: the causes of origins of a disorder - diathesis-stress model: a causal account of psychological disorders based on the idea that psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them - clinical judgments: diagnoses of a psychological disorders or predictions of future behaviour based largely of experts; experience and knowledge - Actuarial judgments: diagnoses of psychological disorders or predictions of future behaviour based on numerical formulas derived from analysis of prior outcomes Chapter Notes - Some psychological (especially less severe) disorder appear to be influenced by environmental factors (ex. unhealthy family interactions) - More sever psychological disorders appear to be influenced by hereditary and other biological factors - 11 percent of Canadians suffer from a psychological disorder or substance abuse problem - Substance use, mood and anxiety disorders are the most common psychological disorders - Many elements of all of the perspectives are incorporated into the diathesis- stress model of psychological disorders, model is based on idea that people’s biological inheritance and early learning experiences predispose them to develop psychological disorders (only expressed if people encounter stressors that overwhelm their capacities to cope with them) Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders - Generally caused by hereditary, environmental and cognitive factors - Perspectives differ on explanation of etiology or origin of psychological disorders Psychodynamic Perspective - Psychological disorders originate in the intrapsychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind (id, ego and superego) - Conflicts may centre on attempts to control potentially harmful expressions of sexual or aggressive impulses or attempts to cope with external dangers and traumatic experiences - It sometimes gets so severe the mind cannot produce a resolution, result is that the defense mechanisms distorts reality or person functions in some ways in earlier developmental st
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