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Chapter

Module 1 Lesson 6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Meredith Chivers

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Module 1 Lesson 6 Notes The Treatment of Psychological Disorders - two main types of treatment are psychotherapy (talk therapy) and pharmacotherapy (medication) Treatment of Mental Disorders - in the 1950s the deinstitutionalization movement began in the US as society shifted toward the belief that individuals with mental disorder should be supported rather than shunned - huge obstacle to this goal was lack of funding and appropriate resources Mental Health Care Settings - many different environments people with mental disorders can receive treatment  psychiatric hospitals provide in-patient care for those with serious conditions  these hospitals may also provide out-patient services to those with mental illnesses who are still able to live within the community  group homes or halfway houses are other options  elderly people with mental disorders are often cared for in nursing homes, where the people are under-trained for mental disorder treatment  most people with mental disorders do not need in-patient treatment have two primary treatment options: seeing a mental health professional (ex. psychologist psychiatrist etc.) or community agencies that provide mental health services Who Can Provide Mental Health Treatment - Psychiatrists  have a medical degree with an additional specialization in psychiatry and are the only mental health professionals who can prescribe medication - Clinical Psychologists  have a doctoral degree in clinical psychology with training in assessment and treatment of mental disorders, as well as training in statistics and research methods - Counseling Psychologists  have a doctoral degree in counseling psychology, which is similar to clinical psychology but with less focus on statistics and research methods and more focus on clinical practice. Counseling psychologists are more likely to work with clients who have general life problems, rather than diagnosable mental disorder - Psychiatric Social Workers  typically have a master’s degree in social work with a specialization in psychiatric issues - Psychiatric Nurses  typically have a nursing degree with specialized training in psychiatric issues - Psychological Associates  have a master’s in clinical psychology, but not a doctoral degree - Counselors/psychotherapists  many have master’s in counseling Assessment - before beginning therapy it is important that individuals undergo assessment with a mental health professional - assessment evaluates symptoms of mental disorder and formulates a diagnosis - Clinical interviews  structured (specific series of pre-determined questions) or unstructured (clinician asks whatever they see as relevant)  many include objective questionnaires or tests  when assessing those with brain injury, learning disabilities, dementia etc. psychologists use cognitive or neuropsychological tests to examine various aspects of cognitive functioning, including intelligence, academic ability, memory, etc.  another form of assessment is called ‘behavioural monitoring’ typically performed by the client or staff if client is in in-patient setting. This assessment involves recording specific behaviours and the circumstances around these behaviours to learn about the frequency of target behaviours, the precursor or antecedent circumstances that trigger the behaviour, and the reinforcements that help perpetuate the behaviour Psychotherapies 1) Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy - basic premise of Freudian psychodynamic therapy was that much of our behaviour ultimately can be explained in terms of unconscious forces or desires; psychological problems are a result of these internal conflicts and we have to be made aware of them in order to be cured - Freud believed personality was largely set by 5-6 years old, event occurring in this time were referred to as ‘predisposing experiences’, these experiences concern those events surround the infant’s sexual wishes and conflicts. In our adulthood, Freud believed the disorder manifests itself when we encounter ‘precipitating experiences’ - psychoanalyst determines ‘unconscious conflicts’ creating the problem for the patient using techniques like free association and dream analysis - psychoanalysis is a very long process since it involves responses from the patient, patients often show resistance to the therapy as it proceeds - in order to become cured, Freud believed that the patient had to become aware of the true nature of his or her problem - Freud’s psychoanalysis is not very common today as it takes so much time - Psychodynamic therapy  roots in psychoanalysis but takes much less time  attends to unconscious processes and is client-therapist relationship treatment  focuses on person’s part experiences in relation to present difficulties  focuses less on psychosexual factors (like in psychotherapy) and more on social and interpersonal experiences 2) Humanistic Therapies - believe that psychological problems result from individuals being thwarted in their ability to self-actualize; therapist job is to help client understand what his or her real wishes and desires are and how to deal with perceived judgments of others that might be blocking these wishes and desires - perceive people’s underlying feelings as positive rather than being the socially unacceptable, irrational desires psychoanalysts focus on - two main types: client-centred therapy and Gestalt therapy - client-centred therapy  relies on client to determine what is wrong (ex. client says “my mother is a witch!” therapist says “you seem to be feeling anger towards your mother”)  therapist attempts to show client the good side if his or her personality, making them realize they can overcome certain adversities  3 important techniques are used: ‘unc
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