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Module 1 Lesson 2.docx

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PSYC 100
Meredith Chivers

Module 1 Lesson 2 Notes The Ways and Means of Psychology The Scientific Method -The scientific method is a method of gaining knowledge that espouses verifiability and objectivity - sometimes referred to as empiricism - Empiricism refers to the gaining of knowledge through observable facts and experiences - in empirical methods any fact or experience can be replicated (ex. if you perform and experiment and find a result someone should be able to perform it and find the same result) -verifiability: a result is verifiable if it can be tested and verified by others - Empiricism is the basis of the scientific method: an event like the fall of an apple from an apple tree is an empirical observation that is easily replicated - A result is objective if it is based on observable phenomena, and is uninfluenced by emotions or personal points of view Operational Definitions - diff ways to measure memory Recall—number of items recalled from a list of words Recognition—number of items recognized (e.g., multiple choice exam) Motor Skills—how long it takes to traverse a maze Collecting Facts - how psychologists make observations that lead them to hypotheses Naturalistic Observation. Naturalistic observation involves collecting data (observations) in natural surroundings rather than in a highly controlled (but also artificial) situation in a laboratory Case Study. The case study is a method of observation that involves the intensive study of a single participant (common in clinical cases) The Survey. Whereas case studies deal with individuals, surveys deal with groups Correlational Studies. Observations collected by surveys are quite often used in correlational studies. A correlation is a descriptive statistic that describes the relationship between two variables - variable- any characteristic or quantity that can vary or change, such as the height of individuals, or shoe size. A correlational study asks whether the value on one variable predicts, t some extent, the value of the other variable. (ex. does someone who is tall also tend to have big feet?) - Generalizability can be defined as the ability of the results of an experiment to be replicated beyond the experimental situation or to other groups of participants. - limits to the genera
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