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Week 18 Social Development Online Lesson.docx

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PSYC 100
Erica Refling

Week 18: Social Development Online Lesson - Inductive discipline: guiding behaviour introducing appropriate limits and setting up reasonable consequences while also explaining why - Four parenting styles identified by Baumrind - Authoritative parents are unlikely to use physical discipline and explain reason behind the rules they lay out, they set firm rules and constantly up hold them, child has a lot of freedom within boundaries – children tend to be socially competent and self-confident - Authoritarian parents use threats and punishment as discipline, more likely to use physical discipline, expect child to follow rules without explanation – children tend to be unhappy and lack social competence and self-confidence, feel unsure of themselves, display anxiety and increased depression - Permissive parents believe children learn best on their own, allow child a lot of freedom to regulate their life and have few demands on them to achieve or behave appropriately – children are impulsive and react more intensely than other children to conflict situations, high self-confidence, more likely to engage in substance abuse - Rejecting-Neglectful parents do not set limits for children, don’t monitor activity, may actively discourage them, interested in meeting their own needs rather then child’s needs – children have low self-perceptions, feel less competent, lack self- regulation, more prone to substance abuse and depression - To qualify as teaching, the model (teacher) must engage in behaviour that provides benefit to the learner, observed learner must gain mastery of the skill being modeled faster than would happen otherwise - Meerkats are a model for non-human animal teaching – the scorpions - Imprinting: a rapid form of learning, typically occurring in a restricted time window after birth, that allows an animal to recognize another animal, person, or thing as an object to be emulated and followed - Attachment: social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans both time and space - Bowly proposed that the attachment bond is formed in four stages: o Stage 1: pre-attachment phase: begins at birth and extends to six weeks of age, infant remain in close contact with caregiver, reliant on their caregivers food, protection, and comfort, infants do no display signs of distress when left in care of someone else o Stage 2: attachment-in-the-making: begins at six weeks of age and extends to 6 to 8 months of age, infants begin to treat people differently, preferential treatment to familiar people, may be wary or nervous around unfamiliar people, animals, or objects, infants form expectations for their parent-child relationship o Stage 3: clear cut attachment: six - eight months to ~18 months, infants actively seek comfort for caregiver, caregiver truly becomes a secure base for infant, infants start displaying separation anxiety, showing signs of extreme distress when separated from caregiver o Stage 4: reciprocal relationship phase: 18 months – 24 months of age, children grow more mobile and competent in their actions, begin to become comfortable spending increasing time separated from caregiver, relation between child and caregiver becomes more reciprocal (relies on all parties to take an active role in maintaining it) – example: caregiver and young children engage in separate activities, but may spontaneously interrupt those activities to check in with each other - Harlow tests Bowlby’s theory of attachment with monkeys – stayed at the monkey that provided comfort (cloth monkey) & went to wired monkey when hungry – need for comfort was so strong it overpowered the need for food - Contact comfort: the comfort that primate babies derive from close physical contact with something soft and warm - To foster secure attachment, a baby needs warm, responsive caregiving - Mary Ainsworth suggested four different styles of attachment could be displayed: o Securely attachment: react positively to strangers while caregiver is present, unhappy when caregiver leaves, unlikely to be comforted by stranger when caregiver not there but is calm when caregiver returns – “secure base” behaviour, freely exploring while using their caregiver as a base o Disorganized/disorientated attachment: do not react to the strange situation in any standard way, behaviour is often contradictory – may want to scream when caregiver gone, but want to avoid caregiver when they return or approach them without looking at caregiver, infants appear to seem to want to approach caregiver while fearing the caregiver’s reactions o Insecure-resistant attachment: uncomfortable in the strange situation, stay close to caregiver from start of test, appear nervous throughout, very upset when caregiver leaves and not comforted when caregiver returns, seek contact and comfort upon the caregiver’s return, crying and struggling against being held, do not resume play, stay close to caregiver and watch them o Insecure-avoidant attachment: no solid or positive relationship with their caregiver, pay no attention to or avoid their caregiver entirely during the strange situation, may not be upset while caregiver is absent, but if they are upset, they are easily comforted by the stranger, unlikely to respond positively to caregiver’s return and may avoid him or her entirely - Temperament: each infant’s individual pattern of behaviours and emotional reactions - Temperament is evident very early in infancy and remains somewh
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