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Queen's University
PSYC 100

Psychophysics-study of the relationship between sensation and perception-> physical characteristic of stimulus and the sensory experience -researchers like Fechner and Von Helmholtz -describing properties of human sensation Sensory Threshold- point where the stimulus triggers the start of an afferent nerve impulse Difference Threshold- just-noticeable difference (JND) between two stimuli Ernst Weber- how sensitive people were to changes in weight-> saw people could more easily detect a very small increase in weight when lifting two light weights than two heavy weights Gustav Fechner-different sensory domains, JND for a stimulus increases as its intensity increases Weber’s Law-size of the JND of a stimulus divided by its initial intensity is a constant -Gustav Fechner -as some stimuli becomes intense, a smaller change is required in JND Fechner’s Law-in every sensory domain, each JND represents an equal step in the psychological magnitude of a sensation -changes in stimulus can be compared across sensory domains Steven’s Power Law-proposed the relationship between the magnitude of a stimulus and its perceived intensity or strength -S. S. (Smitty) Stevens Absolute Threshold- minimum value of a stimulus that be detected Sensory Receptors- structures that respond to external stimuli that are stimulated causes sensation to turn into perception Signal Detection Theory-determines whether a stimulus is perceived depends on sensory experience and judgment made by the subject -sensory process then a decision process -false alarm Subliminal Perception-perception below conscious thresholds -example: movies with flash images to send a message -to perceive figures, perceptual systems make sense of ambiguity and fill in information where it’s missing called subjective contours Gestalt Psychology-individual parts of an image have little meaning on their own, but combined creates a significance -Figure-Ground Principle- objects in the environment stands out against a background -Gestalt Grouping Rules- set of rules that describe when elements in an image will appear to group together -Proximity- two or more objects that are in close proximity to each other are grouped -Similarity-objects are grouped based on similarity in properties -Continuity-lines and other objects tend to be continuous -good continuation -Closure- tendency to fill in gaps to complete a whole objects Top-Down Processing- when prior knowledge and expectations guide what is perceived Bottom-Up Processing- constructing a whole stimulus or concept from bits of raw sensory information Parallel Processing- simultaneous use of top-down and bottom-up processing Selective Attention- involves focusing on one particular event or task Divided Attention- paying attention to several stimuli or tasks at once Inattentional Blindness- failure to notice clearly visible events or objects because attention is directed elsewhere Ventral Stream-pathway extending from the visual cortex to the lower temporal lobe and where recognition object occurs -important for the perception of an object’s shape, colour, and orientation -the ‘what’ stream Dorsal Stream-extends from the visual cortex to the parietal lobe of the cortex and is where depth and motion are perceived -‘where’ and ‘how’ stream Perceptual Constancy- ability to perceive objects as having constant shape, size, and color despite changes in perspective Shape Constancy- judge the angle of the object relative to our position Color Constancy- to recognize an object’s color under varying levels of illumination Size Constancy- judgements on how close an object is relative to one’s position as well as to the positions of other objects -a region of the brain located in the lower part of the temporal lobe specialized in facial recognition Prosopagnosia-condition where you’re unable to recognize faces -face blindness -can compensate by developing heightened abilities such as voice recognition Binocular Depth Cues- distance cues that are based on the differing perspectives of both eyes -Convergence- when the eye muscles contract so that both eyes focus on a single object -creates depth -types of binocular depth cue Retinal Disparity-binocular disparity -difference in relative position of an object as seen by both eyes, which provides information to the brain depth -brain relies on each eye individually and from both eyes working in concert Stereoscopic Vision- results from overlapping visual fields Monocular Cues-depth cues that we perceive with only one eye -Accommodation- when the lens of the eye curves to allow focus on nearby objects -Motion Parallax- used when you and your surroundings are in motion -Pictorial Depth Cues- when painters use to create depth Artist and Depth Linear Perspective- parallel lines stretch to the horizon appear to move closer together as they travel farther away Interposition- nearby objects block the view of far-away objects Light and Shadow-shadow casted by an object allows us to detect the size and the relative location of an object -closer the object the more light it has than far-away objects Texture Gradient- objects that are coarse and distinct at close range bec
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