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Memory Systems

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PSYC 100

Memory Systems Memory- collection of several systems that store information in different forms for differing amounts of time Atkinson-Shiffrin Model -Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin Stores-retain information in memory without using it for any specific purpose -memory has three stores: Short-Term Memory (STM) - limited capacity and duration, less than a minute Long-Term Memory (LTM) -holds information for extended periods of time, but not permanently -knowledge Control Processes-shifts information from one memory store to another -information enters the sensory memory store through the sense, and control process selects which information will pass on to STM -attention -First process is sensory memory William James-primary memory=STM -secondary memory=LTM Encoding- process of storing sensual information in the LTM system Retrieval- brings information from LTM back into STM Sensory Memory -memory store that accurately holds perceptual information from a very brief amount of time-> how brief depends on the sensory system -holds information long enough for us to determine what to pay attention to -holds information from the world in its original form only for an instant Iconic Memory-visual form of sensory memory for about one-half to one second -George Sperling-> to detect is two compare two conditions in a memory experiment: Whole Report Condition- researchers flash a grid of letters on a screen for a spilt second and participants must recall as many as possible-> people can often only report three or four letters on the same line Partial Report Condition- researchers flash a set of letters on the screen, and followed immediately by a tone that is randomly chosen to be low, medium, or high, after hearing the tone, people are to report the corresponding line- bottom, top, or middle-and people can only report three or four letters, but can report them from randomly selected lines, because the tone comes after the screen goes blank -Sperling argued that iconic memory can hold all twelve letters as a mental image Echoic Memory- auditory form of sensory memory, five seconds Serial Position Effect-most people will recall the first and last few items on a list, one or two items form the middle -creates a U-shaped curve Proactive Interference- first information learned occupies memory, leaving fewer resources left to remember newer information Primacy Effect-when the first few items are remembered relatively easy -begins the process of entering LTM Recency Effect-remember the last few items -reside in our STM Retroactive Interference- most recently learned information overshadows some older memories that haven’t yet made it into LTM Working Memory Model: Active STM System Rehearsal- repeating information until you don’t need to remember it anymore Working Memory-model of short-term remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily stores small amounts of information for a short period of time and retrieving information from LTM -Alan Baddeley-> only way to keep memory is to keep the brain activated, speed of memory is a factor-> one can remember shorter words more -can store as many syllables that can be rehearsed in about two seconds -subdivided into storage components-> phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and episodic buffer -capacity limited -Alan Baddlelr Central Executive-control center -coordinates attention and the exchange of information among the storage components -seeks out what is relevant to the person’s goals, interests, and prior knowledge Phonological Loop-relies on rehearsal and stores information as sounds or an auditory code N-Back Task- task where items are presented one at a time and participants must identify each item that repeats relative to the item that occurred "n" items before its onset -can be very active without affecting memory for visual and spatial information -engages in some portions of the brain that specialize in speech and hearing Word-Length Effect- people remember more one-syllable words than four- or five-syllable words in STM Brown-Peterson Test-technique for measuring the duration of working memory -Relies on two main elements: -Meaningless stimuli and interference -participants read a trigram that isn’t associated with anything in LTM, which ensures that people rely on working memory, after they reads a three-digit number and count backward by threes from the number to interfere with rehearsal -memory lasts fifteen seconds Visuospatial Sketchpad-maintains visual images and spatial layouts in a nonverbal code -engages portions of the brain related to perception of visions and space and doesn’t affect memory for sounds -allows you to see where objects are around you and where you intend to go Feature Binding-gives people images that don’t resemble familiar objects -chunking based on shapes, colors, and textures -can retain up to four whole objects, regardless of the number of features Nonverbal- information communicated without words and cannot easily be put into words Episodic Buffer-combines the images and sounds from the other two components into coherent, story-like episodes -includes relevant information to make sense of images and sounds -hypotheized -can hold seven to ten pieces of information, which can be combined with other memory stores -some portion of the working memory is able to connect ta prose with LTM to increase memory capacity Magical Number 7-Miler -people can remember up to seven units of information Chunking- organizing smaller units of information into larger, more meaningful units Trigram- unpronounceable series of three letter words Prose- words strung into sentences Long-Term Memory Systems: Declarative and Nondeclarative Memories Declarative Memories-memories that we are consciously aware of and can be verbalized -scientific evidence comes from several different source Cross-Cortical Storage-distributed throughout the cortex of the brain, rather than on localized region of the brain -critical phase of consolidation that takes place in the hippocampus, even though it is not where it is usually stored, it is key to consolidation process, without a functioning hippocampus, it becomes very difficult to form LTM Episodic Memories-personal experiences -seemed to be organized around episodes that are recalled from a first-person perspective -declines more with age than semantic Semantic Memories- facts about the world Nondeclarative Memories-actions or behaviours that you can remember and perform without awareness Procedural Memories- patterns of muscle movements -motor memory -includes operant conditioning -classical conditioning Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)-enduring increase in connectivity and transmission of neural signals between nerve cells that fire together -memory formation begins with it -process underlies the permanent changes that occur across numerous brain cells as memories form, strengthen, and store -discovered with a hippocampus-key memory structure of the brain located in an area called the medial temporal lobe-which increased the number of electrical potential form one neuron to the other, neurons began to generate stronger signals than before, and a change could last up to a few hours -not permanent Consolidation-process of converting STM into LTM in the brain Cellular Consolidation-when LTP continues long and often enough, neurons will adapt and make changes more permanent -without it LTP would eventually fade away Systems Consolidation-activity of the hippocampus during encoding -hippocampus maintains LTP until the acquired behaviour can form multiple connections throughout the cortex, once the memory traces are formed in the cortex the memory is distributed in an entire network of cells, therefore people who experience damage of the hippocampus would less likely lose LTM that have been consolidated Reconsolidation- hippocampus functions to update, strengthen, or modify existing LTM Binge-Drinking-consuming four or five drinks in one sitting -effects on the hippocampus are pronounced and individuals may experience blackouts Blackout-also known as en bloc memory loss -people who experience it have virtually no recollection of what happened while intoxicated, yet show no memories that had already been formed prior to the blackout Amnesia -profound loss of at least one form of memory -different types and different degrees -affects one of the control process of STM and LTM Retrograde Amnesia-condition where memory for the events preceding trauma or injury is lost -occurs when trauma occurs to the brain -most severe for recent events -similar to Alzheimer’s -likely disrupts consolidation that is already in process Anterograde Amnesia-inability to form new memories for events occurring after a brain injury -problem with transfer from STM to LTM -working memory uses parts of the brain involved in sensation, perception, and attention, and more likely intact Encoding and Retrieving Memories -most familiar aspects of memory are encoding, storage, and revival -not effective for recall -more meaningful the information, the more you remember it Storage- time and manner where information is retained between encoding and retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal-prolonging exposure to information by repeating it -STM Elaborative Rehearsal-prolonging exposure to information by thinking about what it means -important for LTM and remembering -to study: PQ4R Preview- read headings
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