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Week 18 Online Lecture Summary

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Queen's University
PSYC 100

Week 18 Online Notes Social Development 1. Being a Role Model • Much of what we learn is through observation and imitation of other people • Models— people who we have the opportunity to observe and by doing so from whom we learn to behave appropriately o Ex: parents, extended family, friends, TV characters • the amount of influence on development varies among models • parents and caregivers dominate the social world early on in life • we learn about how to interact with others from them • social influences expand once we enter daycare and preschool— include friends and teachers • by adolescence our social sphere is quite large and we begin to learn much more from our friends than we did at a younger age • the social brain hypothesis is an idea that was put forth to explain the evolution of intelligence • the reason that species like humans, chimpanzees and dolphins have developed brains so large and metabolically demanding is to meet the cognitive demands of social living • social animals struggle with their environment to survive and also compete for interpersonal attention and resources • individuals with the greatest ability to outsmart their competitors will be more likely to survive and mate • greater cognitive abilities will be selected under these circumstances and eventually larger brains will become the norm throughout the population • the social brain hypothesis suggests that the reason for the evolutionary growth of the brain is to provided and advantage to social creatures over others of their species • Hoffman suggested that caregivers could employ several styles of discipline • Says induction is the most responsible for empathetic moral development • Inductive discipline— guiding behavior introducing appropriate limits and setting up reasonable consequences within also explaining why • Highlights to the child the consequences of their actions on others while disciplining them • Been found to encourage the development of feelings of empathy and guilt and to increase levels f pro-social behavior in children • The way that parents interact with their children has a powerful development consequences • How caregivers raise their children and how styles of rearing affect the outcomes children experience • Baumrind found that the majority of caregivers fit into one of the 4 parenting styles • The different styles were based on the extent to which parents engage in 2 different styles of interaction • These dimensions are parental demandingness which refers to the extent of the caregivers behavioral expectations for the child and parental responsiveness, the amount of support the caregiver provides for the child and the extent to which he or she meets the child’s needs • Parents conforming to the four parenting styles engage in very different actions as they model behavior, create and enforce rules and limits, and otherwise socialize their children 1. Authoritative parents are unlikely to use physical discipline and will explain the reasons behind the rules they lay out  They reason with their children, hearing their arguments but not always giving in to then  They set firm rules and consistently uphold then  Grant their children a high degree of freedom within set boundaries 2. Authoritarian parents tend to discipline using threats and punishment and are more likely to use physical discipline  May praise obedience as a virtue and expect their children to follow rules without explanation 3. Permissive parents believe children learn best on their own without structure imposed on them by adults  Allow children a great deal of freedom in regulation their own lives  place few demands on them to achieve or to behave appropriately 4. Rejecting-Neglectful Parents do not set limits for their children  Do not monitor their activities and may actively discourage them  They are amore engaged in meeting their own needs than those of their own children • Parental treatment has a major and long-lasting effects when considering non- human animals and humans— the nature of parental interaction has many different facets 2. Attachment • Imprinting— a rapid form of learning, typically occurring in a restricted time window after birth that allows an animal to recognize another animal, person, or thing as an object to be emulated and followed. • it is advantageous for mobile species because it ensures the newborn will remain close to its main source of safety and nourishment— the mother • imprinting occurs within a critical period directly after birth • this immediate bond is long lasting • imprinting was a result of evolution • parent-child bonds work differently in humans— has powerful consequences • Bowlby called the bonding process between child and parent attachment • Attachment— social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans both time and space • Infants and young children view their primary caregivers as a secure base from which they can safely venture to explore their environment • Proposed that attachment bond is formed in 4 stages: 1. Pre-attachment phase— birth to 6 weeks  Remains in close contact with the caregiver  Reliant on then for food, protection and comfort  Do not display signs of distrust when left in the care of someone who is not one of the primary caregivers 2. Attachment-in-the-Making— between 6 weeks to 6 to 8 months  infant begins to treat people differently— show more preferential treatment to familiar people  become wary of or nervous around unfamiliar people, animal, objects  form expectations for their parent-child relationship 3. Clear-cut Attachment— 6 to 8 months to 18 months  Actively seek comfort for their caregivers  Caregivers become a secure base for the infant  Display separation anxiety— show signs of extreme distress when separated from their caregivers 4. Reciprocal Relationship— 18 to 24 months  Children grow both more mobile and more competent in their actions  Begin to become comfortable spending increasing amounts of time separated from their caregivers  The relationship between child and caregivers becomes more reciprocal— relies on all parties to take an active role in maintaining relationship • Harlow came up with the prominent alternative to attachment theory came drive reduction theory • Infants cry for their caregivers because they need caregivers to satisfy their physiological drives like hunger • Contact comfort— the comfort that primate babies derive from close physical contact with something soft and warm • Contact comfort is a important variable in the development of the infants affection for the mother • Proximity promoting signals such as cries, smiles and coos to the caregivers to foster secure attachment • Ainsworth was interested in the relationship between mother and child, particularly in how their interactions affected the attachment bond and infants use of their caregivers as a secure base of exploration • Developed a theory called Strange Situations • Infants and young children reacted in a variety of ways to strange situation • Suggests the attachment status in children was not as simple as being either attached or not attached • There are 4 different styles of attachment that could be displayed 1. Securely attached  react positively to strangers while a caregiver is present but become unhappy when the caregivers leaves  unlikely to be comforted by the stranger in caregivers absence  become calm when caregiver returns  demonstrate secure base behavior— freely exploring while using their caregiver as a base 2. Disorganized/disoriented attached  Children do not react to the strange situation in any standard way  Behavior is often contradictory  may scream while their caregiver is gone but silently avoid them when they return or approach them without looking at them  appear to seem to want to approach the caregiver while simultaneously fearing the caregivers reaction 3. Insecure-resistant attached  children are uncomfortable in the strange situation  stay close to the caregiver from the start of the test and appear nervous throughout  very upset when their caretaker leaves but are not comforted when they return  seek comfort and contact upon the caregivers return— crying and struggling against being held  do not resume play but stay close to their caregiver and watch them 4. Insecure-avoidant attached  Children do not have a solid or positive relationship with their caregiver  Either pay no attention or avoid their caregiver entirely during the strange situation  May not be upset while the caregiver is absent but if upset they are easily comforted by the stranger  Unlikely to respond positively to the caregivers return and may avoid them entirely • The characteristics of the infant are important factors in the attachment bond • Temperament— each infant’s individual pattern of behaviors and emotional reactions • Difference in the way infants respond to the environment, their emotionality and their attentional reactivity • Temperament is evident from very early in infancy and may stay somewhat stable across development— particularly with extreme temperaments • Thomas and Chess defined temperament using scores on 9 different traits 1. Activity level— amount of movement made by the infant 2. Rhythmicity— predictability of the infants biological rhythms, such a sleep patterns and eating 3. Approach/ Withdrawal— how the infant responds to unfamiliar stimuli 4. Threshold of responsiveness— intensity required from a stimulus to elicit a response from the infant 5. Intensity of reaction— level at which the infant will respond to these stimuli 6. Attention Span— relative amount of time spent on an activity once it has begum 7. Distractibility— how much a new stimulus interrupts or alters the infants behaviors 8. Adaptability— how easily the infant adapts to changes in situations 9. Quality of mood— relative amounts of happy or unhappy behaviors the infant exhibits • There are 3 basic temperament types for babies: 1. The easy baby— playful, exhibits regular biological rhythms, calm and adaptable 2. The difficult baby— irregular in his or her biological rhythms, calm and adaptable, slow to adjust to new circumstances, and can react with intense negativity to novel stimuli 3. The slow-to-warm-up baby—love activity level and can seem difficult at first, but eventually warms to people and situations after initially reacting to them mildly • Not all babies fit neatly into one of these 3 categories • Temperament can influence attachment style • Insecurely attached infants are more likely to score high in measures of activity and to react very strongly to novel stimuli • Insecure-avoidant infants were more likely to score low on the quality of mood and high on fearfulness • Bowlby suggests that the early attachment to a caregiver forms an internal workin
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