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PSYC100 13/14 Week 11.docx

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PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 11: Learning and Behaviour Pearson Online Learning - A more or less permanent change in behaviour or behavioural potential that results from experience Classical Conditioning - Learning automatic associations between two stimuli; react, not think o Unconditioned stimulus produces unconditioned response o After training, neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus that produces conditioned response - Acquisition o Phase in which response is learned o Ways to organize acquisition  Delay conditioning • Slight delay between onset of CS and UCS  Backward conditioning • UCS before CS  Simultaneous conditioning • CS and UCS at the same time  Trace conditioning • Presenting CS, taking it away, then presenting UCS • Learning association between memory trace and UCS - Generalization o CRs elicited by stimuli similar to the one used in training - Extinction o Gradual weakening and loss of the conditioned response as a result of the UCS being withheld after presentation of the CS - Spontaneous Recovery o Reappearance of conditioned response after a period of lessened response o Shows that response has not been lost, but inhibited Habituation - Diminished response to stimulus after learned that stimulus is irrelevant - Slow process - WHEREAS adaptation is quick and due to fatigue in neurons Contingency and Continuity - Contiguity o A continuous series of frequent pairings o Necessary, but not sufficient in classical conditioning - Contingency o The degree to which the occurrence of one event is predicted by another o A consequence depends on an action Discrimination Training o Training subject to respond only to one stimulus and not to other similar ones Preparedness - The biological disposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli Operant Conditioning - Guides and shapes behaviour by focusing on consequences - Law of effect o Consequences of a behaviour determine whether it is likely to be repeated - Consequences o Reinforcement  Increases probability of behaviour reoccurring  Positive • When presented, increases behaviour; receiving a treat  Negative • When removed, increases behaviour; buckling
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