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PSYC100 13/14 Week 1.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 1: The Science of Psychology Pearson Online: Rationalism - Ancient Greek philosophers pursued truth through reason and logic - Used rationalism to explain human actions Empiricism - “Scientific” method - Concerned relationship between mind and body, ie. Why people do the things they do - Belief that world can be described through rules generated by observation, quantification, and principle of parsimony (accepting simplest testable solution that accounts for all available evidence) Structuralism - Emphasizes elemental constituents of experience - Important elements of structuralist view: Analysis, introspection - Eg. Perception of an apple: Perceived red, roundness, sweetness, but not APPLE Functionalism - Influenced by the theory of natural selection - Emphasis on purpose of processes - Eg. Why do we perceive apples? How does perceiving apples contribute to survival and reproduction? The Science of Behaviour - Also the science of the brain and the mental processes it computes - Based on how information is attended to and processed using senses and perceptions (therefore creating understanding) - These processes guide behaviour What Is Science? - Identifies causes through systematic observation and experiment (empirical) Textbook: Module 1.2: How Psychology Became a Science Empiricism - Knowledge based on observation, not common sense Determinism - All events are governed by lawful, cause and effect relationships - Behaviour is determined by internal and external influences Influences from Physics - Fechner (physicist) experimented with sensation and perception o Explored how physical and mental worlds interact o Eg. Weights experiment (p. 16) Influences from Evolutionary Theory - Darwin: behaviour is shaped by natural selection o Survival an
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