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PSYC100 13/14 Week 8.docx

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PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 8: Sensation Pearson Online Sensation and Perception - Sensation o The process by which sensory systems gather information about the environment  Turn chemical, mechanical, and light energy into electrical signals in the brain - Perception o The selection, organization, and interpretation of sensations Senses - Vision o Sensing with the eyes  Perception of objects in three dimensions, at varied distances, multitude of colours and textures - Audition o Sensing with the ears - Chemical senses o Gustation  Sensing with the taste buds o Olfaction  Sense of smell - Somatosenses o Bodily senses o Skin senses  Touch, temperature, pain o Kinaesthetic senses  Positioning of limbs o Vestibular senses  Sense of balance and acceleration Specific Nerve Energies - Receptor cells o Specialized neurons that transduce physical energy into electrical signals - Adequate stimulus o Type of physical energy to which a sensory receptor is especially tuned Neural Codes - Place (labeled- line) code o Neurons in different places in the body signal different qualitative features - Population (pattern) code o Information is conveyed across a whole population of nerve cells - Temporal code o Psychologically important information is coded in the firing rate of neurons (quickly or slowly)  Rate of firing • Indicates the intensity of a stimulus Sensory adaptation - A change in sensitivity; occurs when sensory system is repeatedly stimulated in the same way - Reduces data that needs to be processed without actually reducing the amount of information very much - May cause rate of firing to fall below spontaneous rate, or minimum detectable level; stimulus will no longer be noticed o Spontaneous rate  Rate of neuronal firing when no stimulus is present Cranial Nerves - Twelve pairs of nerve fibers that carry sensory information into the skull and to the brain The Visual System Physical Characteristic of Light Psychological Property Wavelength Colour (Hue) Amplitude or Intensity Brightness Purity Colour (Hue) Saturation - Lens and cornea collect and focus reflected light rays; forms an upside down image on the retina - Photoreceptors transduce light energy; electrical signals passed back to ganglion cells - Axons of ganglion cells form optic nerve; convey visual information to the brain Behavioural Evidence for Two Classes of Photoreceptor - Dark adaptation o Sensitivity adjustment of eyes from bright to dim conditions is not smooth  Switch from cone activity to rod activity - Colour sensitivity o Most colour information is lost in dim conditions; see shades of grey  Cones allow perception of colour in bright conditions  Rods work best in dim conditions, but cannot perceive colour - Colour brightness change (Purkinje shift) o Yellows and reds most brilliant midday; blues and greens more brilliant at twilight  Cones most sensitive to reds and yellows; rods most sensitive to light with wavelengths that are perceive
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