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PSYC100 13/14 Week 7.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 7: The Biology of Behaviour Pearson Online The Nervous System (A System of Twos) - Central nervous system o Composed of neurons and glia  Glia serve supportive and protective functions for neurons o Brain  Interprets and stores information, sends orders to muscles o Spinal cord  Pathway connecting the brain and the peripheral nervous system - Peripheral nervous system o Skeletal (Somatic) nervous system  Controls various muscles, relaying motor commands from the brain  Sensory/afferent (carries messages to CNS)  Motor/efferent (carries messages away from CNS) o Autonomic nervous system  Controls “involuntary” muscles, and internal organs  Eg. Heart, viscera  Maintains homeostasis (regulation of internal conditions)  Eg. Temperature  Sympathetic • Prepares body to react and expend energy in times of stress (fight or flight), inhibits digestion  Parasympathetic • Maintains body functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy Transmitting Information - Neuron o Takes in information from other neurons (at dendrites and cell body) o Sends information to other neurons (via axon) o Sensory/ afferent neuron  Sends signals from body to brain o Motor/ efferent neuron  Sends signals from brain to body o Interneuron  Link sensory/motor neurons; integrate and communicate information rather than transmit information between brain and body - Nerve o Refers to a bundle of axon fibres o Transmit information within PNS, and between PNS and CNS - - Cell body o Contains structures that maintain cell health and metabolism - Nucleus o Contains genes (DNA) and makes proteins that run the cell - Dendrites o Receive information - Axon o Transmits information from the neuron - Myelin o Covering that makes axon faster and more efficient - Axon terminal/ synaptic terminal o Sends information across a synapse - Synapse o Gap between two neurons Spinal Reflex - Interneuron connects sensory and motor neurons directly to move body away from pain - Controlled at level of spinal cord; does not directly involve brain Synapses and Connections - Synapse o Conjunction of a terminal button of neuron sending message (presynaptic neuron) and membrane of neuron receiving message (postsynaptic neuron) o Excitatory synapse  Makes postsynaptic neuron more likely to generate an action potential, based on action of neurotransmitter o Inhibitory synapse  Makes postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential - Neurotransmitter o Carries messages across cleft from one neuron to next o Chemical released by terminal buttons that causes postsynaptic neuron to generate a graded potential Action Potential - “All or none” event - If neuron is sufficiently depolarized (reaches threshold of activation), action potential will be generated - If not, impulse will decay and not reach end of axon Communication between Neurons - Binding of neurotransmitter to receptor can trigger action potential in postsynaptic neuron - Graded potentials generated in dendrites; travel to cell body, which decides to fire action potential down axon or not Families of Neurotransmitters - Amines o Dopamine  Involved in movement control, mood modulation, motivation, punishment, reward o Epinephrine  Causes adrenaline when released o Norepinephrine  Involved in arousal and vigilance o Serotonin  Regulates mood, temperature o Acetylcholine  Responsible for motor control at junction between nerves and muscles - Amino acids o Glutamate  Primary excitatory neurotransmitter in brain, associated with learning and memory o GABA  Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain, contributes to motor control - Peptides o Large family; many functions o Opioids
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