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PSYC100 13/14 Week 15.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Jon Miller

Week 15: Development Stages of Prenatal Development - Zygote (Germinal Period) o Single new cell formed at conception - Embryo (Embryonic Period) o Formed from the inner cell mass (cells inside the morula) o Developing embryo resides within the amniotic sac (maintains a constant environment) o Separates into three layers:  Endoderm • Innermost layer of tissue; develops into digestive system, urinary tract, lungs  Mesoderm • Middle layer; develops into muscle, bone, circulatory system  Ectoderm • Outer layer; develops into skin, hair, teeth, central nervous system - Fetus (Foetal Period) o Majority of organ growth is complete o Sleep and wake patterns emerge o Movement, development of vestibular system o Responsive to sound, taste Prenatal Brain Development - Three cell layers differentiate o Small tube of ectoderm (neural tube) formed inside embryo - Neurulation o Neural tube develops into brain and spinal cord - Neural migration o Process by which neurons grow, move, and connect as the neural tube develops into a more mature brain - Apoptosis o Genetically programmed cell death - Teratogens o External compounds that can cause extreme deviations from typical development o Early, lengthy exposure and greater amount = more drastic effects  Eg. Alcohol, tobacco, drugs, diseases Reflexes - Actions that occur automatically in response to certain stimuli - Types of Reflexes: o Eye blink reflex o Rooting reflex  Infant turns his head and makes sucking motions when something is felt on his cheek o Moro reflex  Infant reaches arms outward and inward in a hugging motion when he loses support of his head Reaching and Grasping - From birth to about three months old o Grasping reflex  Infant closes hands on anything that presses against his palms o Pre-reaching  Awkward, poorly guided arm movements towards stimuli - Three months o Intentional grasping  Infant can guide his movements more accurately using
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