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PSYC100 13/14 Week 18.docx

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PSYC 100
Jon Miller

Week 18: Social Development Inductive Discipline - Guiding behaviours, introducing appropriate limits, setting up reasonable consequences while explaining why Baumrind’s Styles of Parenting - Authoritative o Explain reasons behind rules; unlikely to use physical discipline o Set firm rules and uphold them, but high degree of freedom within boundaries o Outcomes  Social competence, self-confidence  Better self-regulation, quick adaptation - Authoritarian o Discipline using threats and punishment o Expect children to follow rules without explanation o Outcomes  Unhappy, lack social competence  Conform to expectations but lack self-confidence  Anxiety, increased aggression - Permissive o Allow children freedom in regulating their own lives o Place few demands o Outcomes  Impulsive, irresponsible; react more intensely to conflict  High confidence, low performance - Rejecting-neglectful o Do not set limits or monitor activities; may be discouraging o More engaged in meeting own needs rather than their children’s o Outcomes  Less competent, low perception of self, anti-social  Lack self-regulation, prone to substance abuse, depression Parenting and Genes - Amount of attention and nursing style can change genes affecting: o Hormonal stress responses o Fear responses o Adaptability to new environments - High nurturing = calmer - Inconsistent nurturing = anxiety Attachment - Social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans time and space - Stages o Pre-attachment  Birth to 6 weeks  Infant remains close to caregiver; reliant on them for food, protection, comfort  Is not distressed when left in care of someone who is not the primary caregiver o Attachment-in-the-making  6 weeks to 8 months  Infant shows more preferential treatment to familiar people  May become nervous around unfamiliar people, animals, objects  Form expectations for their parent-child relationship o Clear-cut attachment  6-8 months to 18 months  Actively seek comfort from caregivers, who become a secure base  Display separation anxiety o Reciprocal Relationship Phase  18-24 months  Become more comfortable spending time away from caregivers  Relationship relies on all parties to take an active role in maintaining it - Types o Secure attachment  React positively to strangers when caregiver present, unhappy when caregiver leaves; unlikely to be comforted by stranger  Explores freely while using caregiv
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