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PSYC100 13/14 Week 16.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Jon Miller

Week 16: Major Theories of Developmental Psychology Pearson Online: Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology - Classical conditioning (Little Albert) o Watson believed that conditioning is the primary way children learn about the world o Exposed multiple stimuli to Albert  Rat was paired with a loud noise  After a few exposures, Albert displayed fear to the rat alone - Operational conditioning o Skinner discovered that attention is a powerful reinforce for children o Intermittently reinforced behaviour is harder to extinguish than consistently reinforced behaviour - Bandura’s Bobo Doll o Aggressive behaviour towards Bobo doll = punishment/reward  Children who observed reward were more likely to reproduce the aggression Piaget’s Theory of Human Development - Schema o Mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information - Progression through developmental stages is marked by building and rebuilding of schemata through cyclical processes: o Assimilation  Incorporation of new data into existing schemata o Accommodation  Existing schemata are modified by new experiences o Equilibration  Reorganization of schemata because information is accommodated to the point where the original schemata no longer holds true • After equilibration, advanced schemata is more stable and less vulnerable to contradiction Piaget’s Four Stages of Development - Focused on physical environment - Sensorimotor stage o Birth to 2 years o Build an understanding of environment primarily through sensory and motor abilities  Reflexes fade and are replaced by voluntary behaviour o Develop fragile mental representations; gain concept of object permanence Preoperational Stage o 2 to 6/7 years o Development in symbolic representation and logical reasoning o Have trouble with concept of conservation o Lacks reversible mental processes o Are egocentric - Concrete Operational Stage o 7 to 11/12 years o Understand conservation and perspective taking o Use of logic remains challenging - Formal operational stage o Adolescence to adulthood o Capable of abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning Socio-Cultural Theory - Proposed by Vygotsky - Places emphasis on social and cultural influences - Intersubjectivity o Understanding between two individuals of the topic they are discussing o Emphasizes:  Joint attention • Ability to share attention with another towards the same object/event  Social referencing • Taking cues from others when dealing with unfamiliar circumstances - Social scaffolding o When a guide supports a learner supports a learner by changing the level of support to fit the child’s current performance o Person with more knowledge helps child reach a higher level of thought than he/she might have reached alone - Zone of proximal development o Increased potential for problem solving and conceptual ability that exists for a child if mentoring and guidance are available Social Cognitive Theory - Bandura emphasizes behaviour, environment, and cognition as key factors in development - Reciprocal
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