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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

WEEK 7 ONLINE LESSON 1. Central Nervous System - brain -spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System a)skeletal nervous system -sensory neurons -motor neurons b)autonomic nervous system (involuntary controls, homeostasis) -sympathetic (stress response) -parasympathetic (relaxed response) CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - glia: supports neuron activity, supplies oxygen and nutrients to neurons, removes dead cells and germs, insulates neuron axons neurons: -nucleus; contains genetic info and produces proteins -dendrites; recieves info from neighboring neurons -axon; relays electrical impulse from cell body to dendrites -myelin; a sheath covering the axon that insulates electrical activity -synaptic terminal; site of neurotransmitter release/binding -synapse: cleft between two terminals nerve: bundle of axon fibres tracts: nerves entirely within the brain or spinal cord Sensory neurons: afferent, sends signals from body to brain Motor neurons: efferent, sends signals from brain to body Interneurons: none of the above; works to integrate and communicate, rather than transmit info; connects motor and sensory neurons Spinal reflex: -primitive reflex driven by sensory, motor, and interneurons to move body away from pain; controlled at the spinal cord only -brain interprets stimuli as painful SYNAPSES excitatory: activated when a presyn. releases neurotransmitters that excites the postsyn; excitement makes the postsyn. more likely to reach threshold and fire inhibitory: lowers likelihood that postsyn. will reach threshold and fire --> resulting postsyn. electrical potentials are called graded potentials --> binding of neurotransmitter can trigger action potential --> graded potentials generated in dendrites, cell body sums and compares impulse and decides to fire an action potential down the axon or not ACTION POTENTIAL: generated if a neuron is sufficiently depolarized (reaches threshold); "all- or-none"; refractory period before it can fire again; if not enough neurotransmitters bind to the postsyn., the signal won't reach threshold and will be dropped NEUROTRANSMITTERS AMINES: dopamine, norepinephrine (energy), serotonin (regulating mood), acetylcholine (to motor neurons) AMINO ACIDS: glutamate and GABA (relaxation
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