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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

WEEK 16 ONLINE LESSON: DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES -how and why humans change over their lifespan and reach milestones in life THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT -eg. Little Albert: classical cond. by Watson and Rayner; neutral stimulus + conditioned stimulus = conditioned response--> generalized fear to other stimuli -believed that conditioning is the primary mechanism through which we learn about the world SKINNER -interested in what motivates behavior -->rewarded behaviors repeated (reinforcement), punished behaviors avoided (punishment) 1. Receiving attention is a powerful reinforcer for young children -Children will act out, even in the hopes of receiving negative attention 2. More difficult to extinguish behavior that has been intermittently reinforced than behavior that has been consistently reinforced -subject used to sometimes not being rewarded, waits for possible next reward -reinforces bad behavior in kids when we occasionally give into their demands -kids' behavior is affected by their environment and interactions w/ it PIAGET -theorized that people develop through a series of 4 stages coinciding with 4 key ages -emphasized importance b/w environ. and maturational factors in development -developed through naturalistic observation of children -cognitive abilities develop in stages; children of similar ages have similar cog. abilities -similarly aged kids make the same errors in problem-solving tasks -emphasis on physical environ. -all typically-developing kids go through the same sequence of stages -they must become proficient/capable in each stage before advancing to the next -progression through stages marked by re/building of schemata: cyclic process of assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration -schema: mental framework w/ which we organize, synthesize, and understand info about envir. -assimilation: incorporating new data into a schema w/o any need to revise schema structure -accommodation: process in which we incorporate info into a schema even though it's not entire explainable by the schema; we must slightly adjust schema, or believe that new info is an exception to the present schema -equilibration: we accommodate new info to the point where the original schema isn't true, so we form a new schema; m ore advanced schema + info, more stable and less vulnerable to contradiction 1. Sensorimotor Stage -birth-2 -babies build understanding of environ. primarily through sensory and motor abilities -reflexes fade, replaced by voluntary action; active exploring + experimentation -8 months: develops fragile mental representation -object permanence: developed concept; when an object is gone, it still exists and is somewhere hidden -eg. bear is held, then hidden; baby believes bear is gone forever and doesn't exist anymore -lacking object permanence 2. Preoperational Stage -2-6/7 years old -inability of child to perform operations/reversible mental processes -lots of cog. development, mostly in symbolic representation and the beginning of logical reasoning -egocentric: cannot understand that others' knowledge, beliefs, and perspective differ from their own -trouble with conservation: quantity of something remains the same even if the shape/size of the container changes -eg. do you have a sister? Jane: "yes", does your sister have a sister? Jane: "no" -cannot reverse concept of "having a sister" on herself 3. Concrete Operational Stage -7-11/12 years old -end of this stage = transition into adolescence -mastering of conservation, improvement in problems w/ 1+ variables (eg. height & width of container considered when estimating volume) -growth in ability to understand feelings/thoughts of others--> perspective taking -understands more complicated cause-and-effect relations, logical problem-solving -use of logic still challenging; hard to extend an idea from one context to the next, especially w/o info right in front of them -hard to imagine that 2 balls of clay = 1 big ball of clay -approach logic problems in a non-systematic way, ignores premises that do not support their assumptions -eg. when baking cupcakes, John sees that I bowl of batter = 12 cupcakes, but he cannot imagine that one bowl of cookie batter = 2 large cookies -able to reason differences in concrete objects w/ conservation tasks, but can't work through hypothetical situations 4. Formal Operational Stage -12-adulthood -gains ability to think about abstract concepts + formulate and test hypotheses in a logical and scientific fashion -not a universal stage, some people don't reach it -people who reach it can't apply these skills to all domains, only their areas of expertise -innate cognitive predispositions are flexible and subject to revision over time PROBLEMS w/ PIAGET -stages don't account for variability in child development -eg. problem-solving skills vary in children by several years, sometimes -cog. capacity of infants is much greater than Piaget thought -emphasized physical environ. over social environ. in importance to cog. development -mechanisms of change are very vague -assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration make sense, but how they work is unclear SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORY -->(Vygotsky) -active interaction w/ environ. is important for development -emphasis on social environ. -Intersubjectivity: the understanding b/w 2 communicators that lets them communicate effectively about a subject; eg. you friend knows you're talkingn about last night's game, and you know that by "Johnson", he's referring to a player on that particular team -encompasses: -Joint Attention: the way that people can focus together on an external object in the nearby surroundings -Social Referencing: in way that people take cues from others when dealing w/ unfamiliar circumstances and situations -social environ. contains lots of info about successful ways on existing in the world; learned by interacting w/ the people in the world -Social Scaffolding: process through which people w/ more knowledge can help a kid reach a higher level of thought than if she or he tried to reach alone -Zone of Proximal Development: zone--> difference b/w what a child might achieve alone and what they can do w/ the help of a more knowledgeable person -skills within the zone range from being too easy to be interesting to too hard to grasp at all -eg. student/teacher relationship -Vygotsky viewed language as one of the driving forces of development -Piaget thought language was a product of developmental processes -child says "I will draw a dog" before doing so -Piaget thought that this communication was a construction of a mental plan -way to internalize linguistic processes SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ERIKSON + LIFE CYCLE -lifespan development = series of stages defined by resolution of "crises" faced by developing child regarding how to deal w/ their environ. -conflict w/ social and physic environ. continues into adulthood -development is until death 1. TRUST vs MISTRUST: birth-1 year old -infant relies on others for own well-being -needs met= learns to trust caregivers -needs not met= learns mistru
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