Textbook Notes (367,844)
Canada (161,454)
Psychology (1,111)
PSYC 100 (335)
Chapter

WEEK 16 ONLINE LESSON.docx

11 Pages
80 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude
Semester
Fall

Description
WEEK 16 ONLINE LESSON: DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES -how and why humans change over their lifespan and reach milestones in life THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT -eg. Little Albert: classical cond. by Watson and Rayner; neutral stimulus + conditioned stimulus = conditioned response--> generalized fear to other stimuli -believed that conditioning is the primary mechanism through which we learn about the world SKINNER -interested in what motivates behavior -->rewarded behaviors repeated (reinforcement), punished behaviors avoided (punishment) 1. Receiving attention is a powerful reinforcer for young children -Children will act out, even in the hopes of receiving negative attention 2. More difficult to extinguish behavior that has been intermittently reinforced than behavior that has been consistently reinforced -subject used to sometimes not being rewarded, waits for possible next reward -reinforces bad behavior in kids when we occasionally give into their demands -kids' behavior is affected by their environment and interactions w/ it PIAGET -theorized that people develop through a series of 4 stages coinciding with 4 key ages -emphasized importance b/w environ. and maturational factors in development -developed through naturalistic observation of children -cognitive abilities develop in stages; children of similar ages have similar cog. abilities -similarly aged kids make the same errors in problem-solving tasks -emphasis on physical environ. -all typically-developing kids go through the same sequence of stages -they must become proficient/capable in each stage before advancing to the next -progression through stages marked by re/building of schemata: cyclic process of assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration -schema: mental framework w/ which we organize, synthesize, and understand info about envir. -assimilation: incorporating new data into a schema w/o any need to revise schema structure -accommodation: process in which we incorporate info into a schema even though it's not entire explainable by the schema; we must slightly adjust schema, or believe that new info is an exception to the present schema -equilibration: we accommodate new info to the point where the original schema isn't true, so we form a new schema; m ore advanced schema + info, more stable and less vulnerable to contradiction 1. Sensorimotor Stage -birth-2 -babies build understanding of environ. primarily through sensory and motor abilities -reflexes fade, replaced by voluntary action; active exploring + experimentation -8 months: develops fragile mental representation -object permanence: developed concept; when an object is gone, it still exists and is somewhere hidden -eg. bear is held, then hidden; baby believes bear is gone forever and doesn't exist anymore -lacking object permanence 2. Preoperational Stage -2-6/7 years old -inability of child to perform operations/reversible mental processes -lots of cog. development, mostly in symbolic representation and the beginning of logical reasoning -egocentric: cannot understand that others' knowledge, beliefs, and perspective differ from their own -trouble with conservation: quantity of something remains the same even if the shape/size of the container changes -eg. do you have a sister? Jane: "yes", does your sister have a sister? Jane: "no" -cannot reverse concept of "having a sister" on herself 3. Concrete Operational Stage -7-11/12 years old -end of this stage = transition into adolescence -mastering of conservation, improvement in problems w/ 1+ variables (eg. height & width of container considered when estimating volume) -growth in ability to understand feelings/thoughts of others--> perspective taking -understands more complicated cause-and-effect relations, logical problem-solving -use of logic still challenging; hard to extend an idea from one context to the next, especially w/o info right in front of them -hard to imagine that 2 balls of clay = 1 big ball of clay -approach logic problems in a non-systematic way, ignores premises that do not support their assumptions -eg. when baking cupcakes, John sees that I bowl of batter = 12 cupcakes, but he cannot imagine that one bowl of cookie batter = 2 large cookies -able to reason differences in concrete objects w/ conservation tasks, but can't work through hypothetical situations 4. Formal Operational Stage -12-adulthood -gains ability to think about abstract concepts + formulate and test hypotheses in a logical and scientific fashion -not a universal stage, some people don't reach it -people who reach it can't apply these skills to all domains, only their areas of expertise -innate cognitive predispositions are flexible and subject to revision over time PROBLEMS w/ PIAGET -stages don't account for variability in child development -eg. problem-solving skills vary in children by several years, sometimes -cog. capacity of infants is much greater than Piaget thought -emphasized physical environ. over social environ. in importance to cog. development -mechanisms of change are very vague -assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration make sense, but how they work is unclear SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORY -->(Vygotsky) -active interaction w/ environ. is important for development -emphasis on social environ. -Intersubjectivity: the understanding b/w 2 communicators that lets them communicate effectively about a subject; eg. you friend knows you're talkingn about last night's game, and you know that by "Johnson", he's referring to a player on that particular team -encompasses: -Joint Attention: the way that people can focus together on an external object in the nearby surroundings -Social Referencing: in way that people take cues from others when dealing w/ unfamiliar circumstances and situations -social environ. contains lots of info about successful ways on existing in the world; learned by interacting w/ the people in the world -Social Scaffolding: process through which people w/ more knowledge can help a kid reach a higher level of thought than if she or he tried to reach alone -Zone of Proximal Development: zone--> difference b/w what a child might achieve alone and what they can do w/ the help of a more knowledgeable person -skills within the zone range from being too easy to be interesting to too hard to grasp at all -eg. student/teacher relationship -Vygotsky viewed language as one of the driving forces of development -Piaget thought language was a product of developmental processes -child says "I will draw a dog" before doing so -Piaget thought that this communication was a construction of a mental plan -way to internalize linguistic processes SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ERIKSON + LIFE CYCLE -lifespan development = series of stages defined by resolution of "crises" faced by developing child regarding how to deal w/ their environ. -conflict w/ social and physic environ. continues into adulthood -development is until death 1. TRUST vs MISTRUST: birth-1 year old -infant relies on others for own well-being -needs met= learns to trust caregivers -needs not met= learns mistru
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit