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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

WEEK 8 ONLINE LESSON NOTES SENSATION NEURAL CODES -how neurons receptor cells convey stimuli into information for the brain PLACE CODE: neurons in different places of the body signal different qualitative features (eg. a wavelength in a specific place will stimulate a photoreceptor in the retina that corresponds to the wavelength's position) POPULATION/PATTERN CODE: information is conveyed across a whole population of neurons, not just one cell (eg. a sound of 500 hz will have the equivalent signal translated to the brain by a sum of neurons; smell is perceived from the stimulation of a combination of olfactory nerves) TEMPORAL CODE: neurons can fire at different speeds (eg. pitch, loudness, and intensity depend on firing rate--> sensory adaptation decreases intensity) Cranial nerves: carries sensory info for vision, hearing, gustation, olfaction, vestibular, skin, and kinesthetic sensation to brain TOUCH somatosenses: skin's sense of temperature, pain, touch kinasthetic senses: positioning of limbs vestibular senses: balance and acceleration adequate stimulus: a type of physical energy that a sensory domain is uniquely sensitive to just-noticeable difference: the smallest different you can perceive between two stimuli; the smaller your difference, the more sensitive you are to that stimulus Sensory adaptation: what happens to sensation (and thus perception) when you fatigue specific sensory neurons; a change in sensitivity, system becomes less responsive in order to ignore stimuli that is unchanging and irrelevant VISION -400nm (violet) to 700nm (red) -colour is a psychological perception -wavelength=colour -higher amplitude=brighter colour -frequency (colour), amplitude (brightness), complexity (saturation) Accommodation: the lens of our eye becomes short and fat to focus on close things, and long and skinny to focus to far-away things -lens and cornea collects and focuses light rays reflected from the object -light E reaches rods and cones, which transduce the E and send electrical signals to ganglion cells -axons of ganglion cells for the optic nerve Purkinje shift: eye sensitivity to different hues changes with the transition from cone vision (bright light) to rod vision (dim light) -rods are most sensitive to green-yellow light, so at dusk, we can see red colours darken, but green-yellow colours will still be bright PHOTOPIGMENTS found in rods and cones; when exposed to light, they gradually become white (bleaching); 4 types in human retina Bleaching: generates a nerve impulse, causes photoreceptor to be less sensitive to light; if completely bleached, the photoreceptor bounces off all the light and will not work (eg. rods in bright light); dark adaption is caused by unbleaching of rods in red cones: photopigments most sensitive to long wavelengths in green cones: photopigments most sensitive to medium wavelengths in blue cones: photopigments most sensitive to short wavelengths in rods: photopigments most sensitive to medium wavelengths and dim light many rods connect to a single ganglion cell: sensitive to dim light, but not fine spacial details one cone connects to one ganglion cell: sensitive to fine special details but not dim light COLOUR MIXING Additive colour mixing: creating new colours by mixing two; the more wavelengths, the whiter the colour Subtractive colour mixing: creating new colours by mixing pigments together, increased types of pigments=increased wavelengths being reflected= darker colour -black absorbs all wavelengths, white reflects all wavelengths Trichromatic colour theory: colour vision is the result of three types of colour receptors Opponent processing: three types of colour receptors act in opposing fashion (eg. inhibiting red lets us see green) -this explains afterimages in the negative colour of the original image (eg. lilac chaser) eg. stare at a green imagine (green photorec. fatigued), stare at white wall (stimulates red and green photorec. equally), see red (red photorec. fires more readily than green, because they're less fatigued) RESOLUTION -depends on our eye movements -
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