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Diagnosing Mental Disorders

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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Diagnosing Mental Disorders Treatment programs 1. Identify environmental circumstances that may cause the addictive behavior to occur or recur 2. Learn to behave in ways that are incompatible with the undesirable behavior 3. Have confidence that they can overcome the addiction 4. View setbacks in overcoming the addiction and learn new coping strategies Health psychology- promotion and maintenance of health practices Stress- a pattern of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stimuli that are perceived as endangering ones well being - stress is a product of natural selection - behavioral adaptation to fight or flight enemies General adaptation syndrome - chronic exposure to severe stressors produces 3 physiological stages - alarm, resistance, exhaustion - experience shock - impairment of normal functioning - resistance- nervous system returns to normal functioning - exhaustion- loses ability to adapt, susceptible to illness and death Richard Lazarus - argues that our perception of stressor determines that amount of stress we experience - effected by cognitive appraisal- perception of a stressful situation - 2 stages - evaluate the threat, judge the seriousness of the perceived threat - asses whether you have the resources necessary to cope with the threat - if you do not have the necessary resources determines the level of stress you will experience. Friedman and Rosenman Type A personalities more susceptible to CHD (coronary heart disease) -excessive competitive drive, impatience, fast movements, rapid speech Type B - less competitive, patient, easy going, tolerant, LEDs likely to suffer from CHD Post traumatic stress disorder - anxiety disorder where the individual has feelings of social withdrawal accompanied by low levels of emotion caused by a prolonged exposure to a stressor - recurrent dreams - intense psychological distress - social support that people receive or do not receive after being exposed to a stressful situation can also affect their developing of this disorder Psychoneuroimmunology - study of the interactions between the immune system and behavior mediated by the nervous system Immune system- a network of organs and cells that protects the body from invading bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances 2 types of specific immune reactions - chemical mediated (involve antibodies) - cell mediated Antigens- unique protein found on the surface of bacteria, allows immune system to recognize as a foreign substance Antibodies- proteins in the immune system that recognize antigens and help kill invading microorganisms B lymphocytes - cells that develop in the bone marrow and release immunoglobulins to defend the body against antigens T lymphocytes- cells that develop in the thymus gland that produce antibodies, which defend the body against viruses Autoimmune diseases- immune system attacks and destroys some of the body's own tissue Psychological disorder- characterized by abnormal behavior, thoughts or feelings. - behavior is maladaptive - interfere with everyday functioning - no single cause, could be heredity, cognitive, environmental factors Etiology- causes or origins of a disorder Psychodynamic perspective (Freud) - psychological disorders originate from Id, ego, superego - trying to control sexual temptations and aggressions, impulses, - used to cope with external dangers or traumatic experiences Medical perspective - psychological disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system Cognitive- behavioral perspective - psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors - interaction with an individuals environment Humanistic perspective - psychological disorders arise when people perceive they must earn the positive regard of others - overly sensitive to criticisms and demands - define their personal value in terms of others reactions to them Sociocultural perspective - cultures in which people live play a role in the development of disorders - cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behavior as normal or abnormal - culture bound syndrome - disorders that exist only in certain cultures Biopsychosocial perspective - multiple perspectives - interaction between biological, psychological, social factors Diathesis stress model - combination of a persons genes and early learning experiences may produce predispositions for disorders - a person may be predisposed to a disorder but not yet develop it because they have not yet encountered stressors to trigger it, or they have coping skills to counter the stressor Diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) - classifies mental disorders - more consistent with medical perspective - emphasis on biological factors (cognitive and environmental factors are overlooked) - question of validity (control of confounding variables) - labeling an individual can affect clinical judgment Axis 1 (alcohol dependence and major depressive) - major psychological disorders that require clinical attention - disorders that may develop during childhood Axis 2 (anti social personality disorder) - personality disorders Axis 3 (alcohol cirrhosis) - provides information about the life of an individual in addition to basic information provided - describes physical disorders Axis 4 (severe stress, loss of job, divorce - describes the severity of stress the person has experienced - details the source of stress, and duration Axis 5 (serious impairment of functioning) - describes the persons overall level psychological, social, and occupational functioning - purpose is to estimate the extent to which a persons quality of life has been diminished by the disorder Szasz (Disadvantage) - labeling someone as mentally ill places responsibility on the medical establishment for their care - relieves people of responsibility for their mental states and for taking personal steps towards improvement (Advantage) - recognition of a specific diagnostic category precedes successful treatment for that disorder 2 activities contribute to diagnoses and predictions - collection of data - interpretation of data Clinical judgements- diagnosis of psychological disorders or predictions of behavior based on experts experience and knowledge - personal bias Actuarial judgements - use statical rules that relate particular indicators (symptoms,personal characteristics) to particular outcomes - higher reliability - can be dehumanizing Comorbid- the appearance of two or more disorders in a single person Attention deficit/ hyperactivity - impulsivity, lack of attention - must be present in two different settings (home and school) - must interfere with age appropriate functioning socially, academically Autistic disorder - abnormal development of social interaction and communication - accompanied by limitations in activity and interests - failure with eye contact and facial expression Neurosis- mild menta
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