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Theories of Intelligence

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Intelligence  A persons ability to learn and remember information, recognize concepts and their relations, and apply that information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way  Definitions depend on cultural judgments  3 approaches to intelligence o Differential approach  Favours the development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples ability to solve problems  Skills important in the classroom o Developmental approach  Studies the ways in which children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world o Information processing approach  Focuses on the types of skills people use to think and solve various types of problems 3 Theories of Intelligence  Two factor theory o Spearman – test of intellectual ability is determined by 2 factors  G factor – general factor  Qualitative principles of cognition  Apprehension of experience o Ability to understand and perceive what they experience  Education of relations o Perceive relations  Eduction of correlates o Figuring out from given facts  F factor – factor specific to a test o Spearman argued that a persons score on the test depends on 2 things  The persons specific ability on the test  And their level of G factor, or reasoning ability  Information processing theory o Sternberg o 3 aspects of intelligence  Successful intelligence  Ability to analyze ones strengths and weaknesses  Use strengths as greatest advantage  Minimize the impact of weaknesses by overcoming and compensating them  Analytic intelligence  Mental mechanisms that people use to plan and execute tasks  Metacomponenents o Processes by which people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a strategy, and allocate resources  Performance components o Processes actually used to perform the task  Knowledge acquisition components o What the person uses to gain new knowledge, taking relevant knowledge and integrating with what they already know  Creative intelligence  Ability to deal with novel situations and solve familiar problems automatically  Practical intelligence  Intelligence reflecting natural selection in our evolutionary history  Adaptation o Fitting into the environment by developing useful skills and behaviours  Sele
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