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Chapter

Psychology Week 1 Part 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology week one The primary emphasis is on discovering and explaining the causes of behavior. The goal of psychology is to explain why people do what they do In order to explain behavior you have to Describe the behavior, measure and categorize it Discover the cause of behavior, the events responsible for the behaviors occurrence. Psychology- the scientific study of the causes of behavior, application of findings of research to the solution of problems Causal event- an event that causes another event to occur Physiological psychology- studies the physiological basis of behavior (learning, memory) eg. How drugs affect the brain Comparative psychology - studies the behavior of various organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive and functional significance of their relation to evolution (study inherited behavioral patterns such as mating, parental behaviors) eg. Testing drugs on animals to compare to humans Behavior analysis- the branch of psychology that studies the effects of the environment on behavior. Eg effects of drugs to repeat certain behaviors. Behavior genetics - studies the role of genetics in behavior, examines similarities in blood relatives, eg animals susceptible to drugs Cognitive psychology- studies complex behaviors and mental processes such as perception, attention, memory (events that cause behavior occur in response to environmental events) eg develop methods that treat addiction Cognitive neuroscience - attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanisms responsible for them eg developed tests that show the intake of alcohol on the brain Developmental psychology- studies the changes in behavioral, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience (emotional, social development) Animism- The belief that all animals and moving objects possess spirits providing their motive forces eg rocks fall on the ground because the spirit within them wanted them to be reunited with the earth. - Psychology as a science must be based on the assumption that behavior is strictly subject to physical laws Descartes -Believed the human body was a machine affected by natural causes and producing natural effects - also believed that physical bodies do not think and the mind is not made of ordinary matter. - the mind controlled the movements of the body through it's sense organs, supplied the mind with information about what was happening in the environment. John Locke - proposed that all knowledge must come from experience - our minds were empty at birth and ready to accept the writings of experience. - simple ideas combined form complex ones George Berkeley - our knowledge of events in the world also requires inferences based on accumulation of past experiences, we must learn how to perceive Model- a relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can do Empiricism- all knowledge is obtained through the senses Materialism- reality can be known only through an understanding of the physical world, of which the mind is a part. James mill - worked on the assumption that humans and animals were fundamentally the same. - both were the physical in their makeups and were completely subject to the physical law
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