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PSYC 100 (329)

Sources of Stress

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

sources of stress Lazarus - cognitive appraisal - the amount of stress induced by a stimulus perceived to be a stressor is determined by how significant we actually believe its threat to be, and whether we feel able to cope with it Approach approach conflict - The choice involved has two desirable outcomes Approach avoidance conflict - One outcome is desirable and the other is not Avoidance avoidance conflict - Both outcomes are undesirable Coping strategy - a plan of action that a person follows to reduce the perceived level of stress, either in anticipation of encountering a stressor or in response to its occurrence Problem focused coping- a coping behaviour that is directed at reducing or eliminating a stressor Emotion focused coping- a coping behaviour that is directed toward changing ones own emotional reaction to a stressor Cognitive reappraisal - a coping strategy in which one alters ones perception of the threat posed by the stressor to reduce stress Progressive relaxation technique - a relaxation technique involving 3 steps - recognizing the bodys signals that indicate the presence of stress - using those signals as cues to begin relaxing - relaxing groups if muscles, beginning with those in the head and then those in the arms and legs Meichenbaums stress inoculation training Conceptualization phase - Goal 1- learning the transactional nature of stress and coping - Goal 2- learning to become better at realistically appraising stressful situations by learning self monitoring skills with respect t negative or maladaptive thoughts, emotions, or behaviors Skills acquisition and rehearsal phase - Goal 3 - learning problem solving skills specific to the stressor - Goal 4 - learning and rehearsing emotion regulation and self control skills - Goal 5 - learning how to use maladaptive responses as cues to implement new coping strategy Application and follow through phase - Goal 6 - learning to practice imagery rehearsal using progressively more difficult stressful situations - Goal 7 - learning to apply new coping skills to other, perhaps unexpected stressors Treatment of psychological disorders Insight therapy Behaviour therapy Cognitive behaviour therapy Treatment of groups Biological treatments Trephining - a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person to permit evil spirits to leave Development of psychotherapy Anton Mesmer - mesmerism - hypnotizing Eclectic approach - A form of therapy in which the therapist uses whatever method they feel will work best for a particular client at a particular time - Combining methods Insight therapy - Assume that people are essentially normal but learn maladaptive thought patterns and emotions which are revealed in their behaviors - View behaviour as a symptom of deeper underlying psychological programs Psychoanalysis - Freud - Therapy aimed at providing the client with insight into their unconscious motivations and impulses - People are biased observers of their own problems and their interpretations cannot be accurate Free association - Client is encouraged to speak freely without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts or ideas - Minimize authoritative influence Resistance - a development during therapy in which the client becomes defensive, unconsciously attempting to health further insight by censoring their true feelings Transference - Client may come to love or hate the therapist with the same intensity of the powerful emotions experienced in childhood toward parents or siblings - Becoming a substitute for actual people in the clients life, therapist acts as a tool for illuminating the conflicts of the unconscious Counter transference - therapist projects their emotions onto the client Psychodynamic therapy - Ego plays a more active role in influencing a persons thoughts and actions - Behaviour is only important to the extent that is serves as a manifestation of the real underlying motive or conflict Humanistic therapy - focuses on the persons unique potential for personal growth and self actualization -Client centered therapy (Carl Rogers) - the client is allowed to decide what to talk about without strong direction and judgment from the therapist - Gestalt therapy (Fritz Perls)- emphasizes the unity of the mind and body by teaching the client to get in touch with unconscious bodily sensations and emotional feelings (emphasis on present experience) In congruence - many psychological problems can be traced to people's perceptions of themselves as they actually are (real selves) as differing from the people they would like to be (ideal selves) Acceptance and approval of the person does not necessarily mean approval and acceptance of their behaviour Should create conditions in which the client can achieve their own insights and make their own decisions Unconditional positive regard (Rogers) - therapeutic expression that a clients worth as a human being is not dependant on anything they do, feel or think (Perl) our memories and feelings of guilt affect our ongoing relationships with others Therapies based on classical condit
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