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PSYC 100 (335)

Social Development.

12 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Social Development 652012 70100 AM Social Brain HypothesisExplains the evolution of intelligenceThe reason that humanschimps and dolphins have developed brains so large is to meet the cognitive demands of social living o Constant competition in the environmento Competition for resources and mates within the same speciesThe reason for the evolutionary growth of the brain is to provide an advantage to social creatures over others of their speciesModelsPeople who we have opportunity to observe and by doing so we learn to behave appropriately o Anyone in our environment can be a model o Early in life or social world is dominated by care giversPunishmentWe learn appropriate behaviour and inappropriate behaviour through enforcement rules by caregivers o Consistent punishment can reduce unwanted behaviour o Positive punishment is less effect than positive reinforcementPunishment can provide behaviour changes and does not teach children to behaviour appropriately in the long termMartin HoffmanTypes of discipline experienced by children affect their empathy and moral decision making o Induction was most responsible for empathetic moral developmentInvolved highlighting to the child the consequences of their actions on others while disciplining themEncourages development of feelings of empathy and guilt and increase levels of Prosocial behaviourBaumrinds 4 styles of parentingEarly work describing how caregivers raise their children and how they affect the outcomes children experience2 styles of how psrents engage in two style interaction with their children o Parental demandingnessParents behavioral expectations for the child o Parental responsivenessThe amount of support the caregiver provides for the child and the extent to which they meet the childs needsFirst style of parenting authoritative o Highly demanding and highly responsive o Unlikely to physically discipline will explain to the child the reasons behind the rules o Reason their children o High ruleshigher freedom within the boundariesChildren tend to become self confidentDo well in school and feel good about themselves and supported by their parentsBetter self regulation and quicker to adapt to new situationsBest outcomesSecond style authoritarian o Highly demanding of their children inflexible about deviations from expected behaviour o Less responsive to their childs need o Discipline through threats or punishment o Praise obedience as a virtue and follow rules without expectationChildren raise may be unhappy and lack social competenceConform well to stands of adults but lack self confidenceUnsure of themselves in social situations and look for guidance of authority figuresUse of physical discipline is associated with aggressive behaviour and anxiety
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