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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Personality 6/5/2012 7:03:00 AM Personality  A pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another  Consistent pattern of thoughts, feelings, behaviours that characterize each person as a unique individual o Minor changes in behaviour shouldn’t affect personality  Social Psychology o Focuses on peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviours change across different situations  4 different personality perspectives o Trait o Psychodynamic o Humanistic o Social cognition Trait perspective  Traditional classic approach to psychological study of personality o Factor analysis  Reveals factors or basic dimensions that underlie a survey data set  Essentially, this technique examines all of the correlations between all of the questionnaire items and determines if any of them group together (are highly correlated with one another)  Groups are called factors  Examine to see if a common theme exists  Sixteen – factors o Basic traits that could be used to describe all personality types  The big Five (Five Factor Model) o Five general independent personality dimensions that best capture all personality types  Neuroticism  Pay attention to threats and unpleasant experiences  Show distress  More susceptible to anxiety and depression  Extraversion  Attend more parties, popular, leaders  Openness to experience  NEO Personality Inventory  Change careers, less racial prejudice  Agreeableness  More willing to lend money, few behavioural problems  Conscientiousness  Sexually faithful, higher job performance, good grades o Also composed of six subordinate trait dimensions Personality can be stable through adulthood and increase with age  Personality tests correlate well with behaviour Psychodynamic Perspective  Sigmund Freud o Focus on childhood experiences o Hypnosis o Focus on unconscious forces and desires  Human behaviour is largely driven by the unconscious  Unconscious motivations related to sex and aggression influence personality o Psychoanalysis  Exposing and interpreting unconscious motivation and conflicts o Personality Structure  Id  Completely unconscious  Basic sexual and aggressive drives  Pleasure principle, immediate gratification  Superego  Follows the rules and restrictions placed upon us by society  Partly conscious  Ego  Largely unconscious  Mediates between the id and the ego  Reality principle  Psychosexual development o Personality develops through a series of childhood stages where the pleasure seeking energies of the ID become focused on distinct erogenous zones on the body  Each stage presents a challenge we must work through o Fixation  Lingering focus on pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage  Until resolved, individual is stuck at the stage  Oral  Anal  Phallic  Latency  Genital  Defense Mechanisms o Personality is also influenced by defense mechanisms that employ to keep unacceptable or anxiety producing motives and thoughts from their conscious awareness  Repression  Banishes unpleasant thoughts from consciousness  Displacement  Shifting impulses towards a more acceptable or less threatening object or person  Sublimation  Redirects sexual and aggressive energies towards activities that are valued by society  Reaction Formation  Ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites  Projection  People disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others  Rationalization  Self justifying explanations and reasons for ones actions  Regression  Retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage   Immature Defenses o Those that distort reality the most and lead to most ineffective behaviour (projection,regression,displacement)  Intermediate Defenses o Less distortion of reality and lead to
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