Textbook Notes (368,418)
Canada (161,876)
Psychology (1,112)
PSYC 100 (335)
Chapter

Memory

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude
Semester
Fall

Description
Memory – the cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information  Encoding o The process by which sensory information is converted into a form that an be used by the brains memory system  Storing o The process of maintaining information in memory  Retrieval o The active processes of locating and using stored information Sensory information – memory in which representations of the physical features of stimulus are stored for very brief durations Short term memory  An immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived  Present information in its active state Long term memory – memory in which information is represented on a permanent basis  Episodic memory o Serves as a record of our life experiences  Semantic memory o Contains data, facts and other information including vocabulary Iconic memory – sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just been perceived (visible persistence) Echoic memory – sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived, holds a representation of the initial sounds until the entire word has been heard Working memory  Represents our ability to remember what we have just perceived and to think about it in terms of what we already know  Another term for short term memory Primacy effect –  The tendency to remember initial information  (eg. First few items in a list) Recency effect  The tendency to recall later information  Recall of last words in a list because they were the most recent Chunking – a process by which information is simplified by rules which make it easily remembered once the rules are learned Phonological short term memory – short term memory for verbal memory Sub vocal articulation – a unvoiced speech utterance Conduction aphasia  an inability to remember words that are heard although they usually can be understood and responded to appropriately  damage to Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area Consolidation – the process by which information in short term memory changes to long term memory Retrograde amnesia – loss of the ability to retrieve memories from the past  Perceptual memories o Sensory association cortex  Visual memories o Visual association cortex  Auditory memories o Auditory cortex  Motor memories o Motor association cortex (frontal lobe) Craig and Lockhart Maintenance rehearsal – the role of repetition of information  Shallow processing o Analysis of superficial characteristics of stimulus Elaborative rehearsal – processing of information on a meaningful level  Deep processing o Analysis of complex characteristics of a stimulus (meaning) Effortful processing – practicing or rehearsing information through either shallow or deep processing Automatic processing – form
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