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PSYC 100 (335)

Learning and Behaviour

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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Learning and Behaviour 6/8/2012 6:50:00 AM Learning – an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience Performance  the behavioral change produced by the internal changes brought about by learning  evidence that learning has occurred 3 kinds of learning  habituation  classical conditioning  operant conditioning orienting response – any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs (ears, nose, eyes) toward the source of a novel stimulus Habituation  Learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly o Short term habituation  when stimuli are massed into quick repetitions  fast but short term o Long term habituation  Stimuli are presented in small groups that are spaced in time  Slower but long term Classical conditioning  Involves learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur  Response that normally is elicited with the unconditional stimulus comes to be controlled by another stimulus (conditioned stimulus) as well  The sequence of timing of events are important factors o Unconditional stimulus  stimulus (eg, food) that naturally elicits a response o Unconditional response  A natural response that is elicited by the unconditional stimulus o Conditional stimulus  A stimulus that is associated with an unconditional response becomes conditional when paired with an unconditional stimulus o Conditional response  Response associated with the conditioned stimulus Acquisition – the time during a conditioned response first appears and increases in frequency Extinction – the elimination of a response that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without being followed by the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous recovery – after an interval of time, the reappearance of a response that had been previously been extinguished Generalization – conditioned responses elicited by stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus used in training Discrimination – the appearance of a conditioned response when one stimulus is presented but not the other 2 factors influence the strength of the conditioned response  intensity of the unconditional stimulus  timing of the conditioned stimulus and unconditional stimulus 0.5 second is the optimal delay between the onset of the conditioned stimulus and the onset of the unconditional stimulus A neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus when the following conditions are satisfied  the conditioned stimulus occurs prior to the unconditional stimulus  the conditioned stimulus does not regularly occur when the unconditional stimulus is absent blocking – when a new conditioned stimulus is added the conditioned response is unable to occur because there is already previously conditioned stimulus that blocks the new conditioned stimulus Inhibitory conditional response - a response tendency conditioned to a signal that predicts he absence of the unconditioned stimulus Excitatory conditional response - response tendency conditioned to a signal that the unconditioned stimulus is about to occur Operant conditioning  a form of learning in which behaviour is affected by its consequences  favourable consequences strengthen the behaviour and unfavora
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