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Chapter 2

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PSYC 100
Meredith Chivers

Chapter 2: The Ways and Means of Psychology p. 28-55 The Scientific Method in Psychology - set of rules that dictate general procedure to be followed in research; allows us to determine the causes of phenomena - three basic forms of scientific research  naturalistic/clinical observations o observation of the behaviour of people/animals in natural environment while undergoing diagnosis or treatment o results often reported in case studies  experiments o study where researcher changes value of an interdependent variable to see whether the manipulation affects the value of a dependant variable o only experiements can confirm whether a cause-and-effect reationship exists among variables  correlational studies o examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals Parts of Research: - Identifying a Problem: Getting an Idea for Research  start with hypotheses  theories (states facts, proposes relations among variables, makes new predictions), a good theory generates a testible hypotheses (tested/proved by scientific research) - Designing an Experiment  choose variables to observe/study  researchers either maniuplate or measure the variables  experimental group- exposed to a particular value of the independent variable (manipulated by researcher)  control group- exposed to natural value of the variable (not manipulated)  independent variable- variable that is manipulated to see if it alters the effect on the dependent  dependent variable- variable that is measured  must avoid nominal fallacy- false belief one has explained an event by naming it (classifying a behaviour doesn’t explain it)  operational d
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