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Chapter 1

Psych 100 - Chapter 1.doc

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Dean A Tripp

Psych 100 – Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology • Psychology is the study of human behaviour • The ultimate goal of psychological research is to understand human behaviour why people do what they do Causal event-an even which causes another event • Psychological research is performed to explain the different types of behaviours analyzing the cause of each There are 12 fields of psychology we will focus on: 1. Physiological-study of physiology of organism to understand causal events in human behaviour 2. Comparative-study of behaviour of a variety of species, attempting to explain behaviour in terms of evolutionary adaption 3. Behavioural analysis-studies effect of environment on behaviour -Behaviours producing + effects repeated, - are not 4. Behavioural genetics- studies role of genetics in behaviour -look into what behaviours can be passed on genetically 5. Cognitive-studies mental processes and complex behaviours like perception -research helps us to discover brain function in response to events 6. Cognitive Neuroscience-studies brain mechanisms responsible for cognitive processes, studies damaged brain to find functions 7. Developmental-studies the physical, emotional, cognitive and social development of children mainly 8. Social-looks into the effect of people on other’s behaviours 9. Personality-catergorizes and understands the causes of an individuals difference in behavioural patterns 10. Evolutionary-explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that propagate specific behaviour 11. Cross-cultural-studies the effects of culture on behaviour 12. Clinical-investigation and treatment of abnormal behaviour and psychological disorders Physiological Roots of Psychology: • we are all aware of out own existence, it is believed that this consciousness tends to relate to our own behaviours Animism-believed at one time that our behaviour was governed by spirits • Rene Descartes looked into natural phenomena using sensory experience and human reasoning Reflex-automatic response to a stimulus Dualism-belief that reality consists of mind and matter • mind controls movements while body provides mind with environmental information and sensations • John Locke took this further with empiricism (truth through observation) instead of rationalism, proposing knowledge must come from experience • George BArkely extended this theory, proposing perception is also necessary to attain knowledge • James Mill proposed Materialism, reality can only be known through an understanding of the physical world Biological Roots of Psychology: • Rene Descartes’ model of muscular physiology provides connection between biology and psychology • Johannes Miller advocated removing animal’s organs and testing their responses or behaviours to different stimuli to see how the
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