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Psych 100 Textbook Notes

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

Week 13LANGUAGE120401 1241 AM Describe the differences between language and communication Language method of communicating information thoughts ideas emotions Language is used as a tool in our rememberingthinking Universal rulegoverned system of arbitrary symbols to communicate ideasfeelings Communication communication does not mean language more like interaction with one another Identify the three key properties of human language 1 SemanticityTo what extent a form of communication can meaningfully represent ideaseventsobjects symbolically2 GenerativityWe have ability to use limited number of wordsfew rules to combine words into unlimitedof sentences3 Displacement Use language to communicate information about events in the pastfuturelocation Describe the components of language phonemes morphemes syntax semanticsand pragmatics 1 Recognition of Speech SoundsAuditory system forms complex task that enables us to recognize speech soundsAuditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sound themselves Context affects the perception of words in topdown processingPhonology rules that govern sound Phonemes distinct units of soundable to distinguish one word from another o Ex Pin consist of 3 phonemes pin o Ex Rice and Lice Phonological rules govern how phonemes can be combined in a given languageVoice onset time1 delay between initial sound of a consonant and onset of vibration of the vocal cords o allows us to distinguish between p and b Phonemic discrimination associated with auditory processing of sensory differences and occurs in both hemispheres Regions of left auditory cortex specialize in recognizing special aspects of speech Perception of phoneme is affected by sound that follow itWe recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemesMorphemesPhonemes combined morphemes smallest meaning of languageFree morphemes meaningful on their own and can stand alone as wordsBound morphemes meaningful only when combined with other morphemes to form words Ex Fastestcontains two morphemes fast free morpheme bc it can stand alone and still have meaning ist bound morpheme which can not stand alone and must have other morphemes attached to have meaningSyntax Grammar Rules of Languageuse words that the listener is familiar with Syntactical rules combining words to form phrases clauses or sentences Syntax provides important information Understanding of syntax is automatic but brain behaves differently to difficult syntax Syntax rules are learned implicitly cannot be described verbally Learning syntax and word meaning involves different brain mechanism Syntactical cues are signaled by word order word class functioncontent words affixes word meanings parsodyWord order is important in Englishex The boy hit the ball The ball hit the boyWord class grammatical categories nounpronounverbadjective2o when we hear the word beautifulwe know it refers to thing or personwords can be classified as Function words or Content words o Function Words determiners quantifiers athetosomeandbut express relation between content words o Content Words nouns verbs went caught express meaningaffix prefixes or suffixes that alter grammatical functionex edpast tense adding affixes to a nonsense sentence makes it easier to remember bc it looks more like a sentence Semanticsmeaning of words rules that govern these meanings ex Frank discovered a louse combing his beardwho is combing Pragmaticsknowledge of the world helps you to interpret what others say to you enable you to use language appropriately in different situationsex How you speak to your friend vs speaking to your bossProsodyuse of stress rhythm change in pitch that accompanies speechemphasize the syntax of word or group of wordsprimary source of syntactic information extremely important in language comprehensionRelation between Semantics and Syntaxdeep structure essential meaning of a sentence without regard to grammatical features surface structure of the sentence that are needed to express it in wordssurface structure the grammatical features of a sentence Knowledge of the World 3
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