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Psychology (1,086)
PSYC 221 (49)
Chapter 12

# PSYC 221 Chapter 12: Psych 221 Chapter 12 Textbook Notes

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School
Queen's University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 221
Professor
Monica Castelhano
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12: Problem Solving Problem occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle It is difficult and not obvious to get around The Gestalt Approach: Problem Solving as Representation and Restructuring: Problem solving was about: o How people represent a problem in their mind Ex. Solving a crossword puzzle o How solving a problem involves a reorganization or restructuring of this representation Restructuringprocess of changing the problems representation, according to Gestalt psychologists restructuring is the key mechanism of problem solving Insightthe sudden realization of a problems solution Gestalt psychologists assumed people solving their problems were experiencing insight because the solutions usually seemed to come to them all of a sudden Janet Metcalfe David Wiebe o Distinguish between insight problems and noninsight problems o Subjects were presented with insight problems and noninsight problems, then asked them to make a warmth judgement every 15 seconds as they were working on the problems. Ratings closer to hot indicated they believed they were getting closer to the solution, and cold further Insight Problems: Triangle Problem move three dots in order to make the triangle point to the bottom of the page Chain Problem women has 4 pieces of a chain, each piece is made up of three links, she wants to join them into a close single loop chai. To open a links costs 2 cents and to close costs 3. She only has 15. How does she do it? Noninsight Problems: Incremental A problem that can be solved by following a particular set of rules that lead to answer Algebra problems o Results: Insight problemswarmth ratings began at 2 and then didnt change much until seconds before the solution, and all of a sudden went to 7 (highest rate). Noninsight problemswarmth ratings increased gradually Therefore, solutions for insight problems occur suddenly Obstacles to Problem Solving: Fixation peoples tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution o Functional fixation focusing on familiar functions or uses of an object
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