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PSYC 221 Ch7 LTM Encoding and retrieval.pdf

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PSYC 221
Kevin G Munhall

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PSYC  221  –  Long-­‐term  Memory:  Encoding  and  Retrieval   Chapter  7   Long-­‐term  Memory:  Encoding  and  Retrieval     Encoding:  process  of  acquiring  information  and  transferring  it  to  LTM.       Note  the  distinction  between  coding  and  encoding.  Coding  refers  to  the  form  in  which  a  stimulus   enters  our  memory.  For  example,  there  is  visual,  auditory,  and  semantic  coding.  Encoding  is  a   process  by  which  information  is  stored  in  LTM.     Retrieval:  process  of  transferring  memory  from  LTM  to  working  memory.     Methods  of  encoding  information     Rehearsal:  repeating  information  over  and  over.   • Maintenance  rehearsal   • Elaborative  rehearsal     Maintenance  rehearsal:  repetition  that  maintains  information  in  working  memory  but  is  not   effective  in  transferring  information  into  LTM.       Elaborative  rehearsal:  making  connections  between  the  meaning  of  an  item  and  something  you   know.  This  method  is  much  more  effective  in  transferring  information  to  LTM.       Levels-­‐of-­‐processing  theory:  memory  depends  on  how  information  is  encoded,  with  “deeper”   levels  of  processing  resulting  in  better  encoding  and  retrieval  than  “shallow”  processing.     Depth  of  processing  compares  “deep”  and  “shallow”.       Shallow  processing:  attention  is  placed  on  the  physical  characteristics  of  the  item  without  paying   attention  to  the  meaning  of  the  item.  This  is  the  method  used  in  maintenance  rehearsal.       Deep  processing:  close  attention  on  an  item’s  meaning  and  relating  it  to  something  else.       In  Craik  and  Tulving’s  experiment,  shallow  processing  involved  having  the  participant  pay   attention  to  physical  characteristics  of  the  word,  deeper  processing  had  the  participant  pay   attention  to  the  sound  of  the  word,  and  the  deepest  processing  came  from  paying  attention  to   meaning.       The  levels-­‐of-­‐processing  theory  became  less  important  in  researching  LTM  as  it  became  difficult  to   objectively  determine  the  depth  of  processing.               PSYC  221  –  Long-­‐term  Memory:  Encoding  and  Retrieval   Circular  reasoning:  logic  in  explaining  a  phenomenon   uses  a  variable  that  is  not  independent  from  the  target   idea.  Terrible  explanation,  I  know...   • If  the  question  is:  is  the  “desert  island”  task   deeper  in  processing  than  evaluating  the   meaning  of  a  word?     Note  the  figure  to  the  right.  The  depth  of  processing  is   a  construct,  but  recall  scores  are  a  tangible  way  to   measure  a  construct.     • Since  memory  is  better  using  the  desert  island  task  than  other  semantic  tasks,  you  can   conclude  that  it  has  greater  depth  of  processing,  right?  Not  so  simple.     • In  this  scenario,  depth  of  processing  has  not  been  defined  independently  of  memory.   • Memory  performance  is  used  to  predict  depth  of  processing,  and  depth  of  processing  is   used  to  predict  memory  performance.       Ways  of  encoding  that  influence  retrieval     Retrieval  cue:  word  or  stimulus  that  helps  a  person  remember  something  that  is  stored  in   memory.  (This  will  be  visited  in  more  detail  later).       Placing  words  to  be  remembered  in  complex  sentences   The  more  memorable  and  complex  the  sentence  is,  the  better  the  recall.     Forming  visual  images  based  on  words   • Study  in  which  researchers  used  paired-­‐associate  learning  (presenting  words  in  pairs)   and  asked  some  to  use  silent  repetition  and  some  to  picture  the  words  interacting.     • Those  who  pictured  the  words  interacting  remembered  twice  as  many  word  pairs.     Forming  links  between  words  and  personal  characteristics   This  is  especially  true  for  words  about  yourself  (see  self-­‐reference  effect,  below).  This  relates   back  to  the  idea  that  more  memorable  and  complex  encoding  items  lead  to  better  recall.  When  we   can  tie  a  word  to  ourselves,  we  are  making  it  a  rich  and  meaningful  memory  item.       Self-­‐reference  effect:  memory  is  better  if  you  are  asked  to  relate  a  word  to  yourself.       Generating  information   When  you  generate  the  memory  item  yourself  you  are  more  likely  to  remember  it.    Note  the   picture  below.  Participants  in  the  “read”  condition  had  poorer  recall  than  participants  that  were   told  to  “generate”  the  word  pair.       Generation  effect:  learning  and  retention  are  enhanced  when  you   generate  material  yourself  as  opposed  to  receiving  it  passively.         PSYC  221  –  Long-­‐term  Memory:  Encoding  and  Retrieval   Organizing  information   Information  that  is  encoded  in  an  organized  fashion  is  more  easily  retrieved.       Testing  yourself   Testing  effect:  memory  performance  is  increased  when  you  are  tested  on  the  information.     Summary:  Factors  that  aid  encoding       Retrieval     Examples  of  retrieval  cues   • Going  to  the  location  of  encoding   • Hearing  a  song   • Particular  smells     Retrieval  cues  can  be  extremely  effective  for  remembering.  But  they  are  most  effective  when  they   are  self-­‐generated.   • Recall  the  experiment  where  participants  were  given  600  words,  such  as  banana.   • Participants  were  asked  to  write  three  words  that  associated  with  the  word.   • When  the  participants  were  later  asked  to  recall  the  list,  the  participants  who  used  their   own  retrieval  cues  remembered  90%  of  the  list.  Other  participants  were  given  other   people’s  retrieval  cues,  and  they  only  remembered  55%.     • (There  was  also  a  control  condition  in  which  some  participants  had  not  seen  the  original   list  and  were  only  given  the  cues  –  like  Super  Password  –  these  participants  were  only   able  to  generate  17%  of  the  list).       Study  condition  =  encoding   Test  condition  =  retrieval     Evidence  that  retrieval  can  be  increased  by  matching  the  conditions  at  retrieval  to  the   conditions  that  existed  at  encoding.   • Encoding  specificity   • State-­‐dependent  learning   • Transfer-­‐appropriate  processing   • (Each  of  these  will  be  described  in  greater  detail  on  the  next  page)     PSYC  221  –  Long-­‐term  Memory:  Encoding  and  Retrieval   Encoding  specificity:  we  encode  information  along  with  its  context.     • Recall  the  Scottish  divers  –  memory  was  better  when  the  list  was  learned  and  tested  on   under  water  or  when  it  was  learned  and  tested  on  land.     • Essentially,  best  recall  takes  place  when  the  study  condition  matches  the  testing  condition.     State-­‐dependent  learning:  learning  that  is  associated  with  a  particular  internal  state.     • Best  recall  takes  place  when  a  person’s  mood  during  retrieval  matches  their  mood  during   encoding.     • Recall  the  happy/sad  memory  test  in  which  participants  were  put  into  a  particular  mood  to   study  and  to  be  tested.     Transfer-­‐appropriate  processing:  memory  performance  is  enhanced  if  the  type  of  task  at   encoding  matches  the  type  of  task  at  retrieval.     • Recall  the  study  in  which  participants  had  better  recall  when  they  encoded  using  a  rhyming   task  and  had  a  cued  recall  using  a  rhyming  task.     Principles  to  aid  successful  encoding  and  retrieval         Elaborate   • This  is  the  step  that  moves  information  into  LTM  in  the  first  place   • Association  between  two  stimuli  make  them  more  complex  and  easier  to  remember     Generate  and  test   • Take  an  active  role  in  creating  memory  cues  –  for  example,  instead  of  copying  down  a   definition  from  the  book  try  to  understand  and  reword  it.  The  generation  of  the   information  will  make  it  easier  to  remember.     • Another  example  of  generation  is  explaining  concepts  to  friends  or  family.   • Testing  is  a  form  of  generation,  since  you  are  generating  the  answers.   • The  theme  with  generating  and  testing  is  active  engagement  with  the  material  causes  better   recall.     Organize   • Whatever  the  method  of  organization  you  use,  the  key  part  is  creating  a  mental  framework   that  ties  some  information  to  other  information  (association).     • When  you  organize  information  you  are  chunking  –  grouping  small  and  seemingly   unrelated  elements  into  a  meaningful  and  memorable  picture.       PSYC  221  –  Long-­‐term  Memory:  Encoding  and  Retrieval     Take  breaks   Spacing  effect:  Memory  is  optimized  when  encoding  takes  place  in  shorter  sessions,  even  when   the  total  study  time  is  the  same  as  a  long  cram  session     Match  learning  and  test  conditions   • Recall  encoding  specificity,  state-­‐dependent  learning,  and  transfer-­‐appropriate  processing:   memory  is  better  when  the  study  condition  closely  matches  the  test  condition.     Aside:  Remember  how  memory  is  best  when  studying  takes  place  in  the  same  location  as  testing?   This  isn’t  always  a  feasible  strategy.  Studies  have  shown  that  the  next  best  thing  to  studying  in  the   testing  location  is  to  study  in  a  variety  of  different  locations.  This  prevents  the  association   between  the  encoded  information  and  a  particular  location.       Avoid  “illusions  of  learning”   An  illusion  of  learning  occurs  when  you  think  that  you  can  remember  the  information  when  it  is   in  front  of  you,  but  learning  has  not  been  significant  enough  for  proper  retrieval  later.  Mechanisms   that  bring  about  an  illusion  of  learning:   • When  you  reread  material,  you  increase  fluency  (that  is,  the  ease  of  taking  in  the   information).  Increased  fluency  is  often  taken  as  a  sign  for  learning,  but  this  is  not   necessarily  the  case.     • Familiarity  effect:  rereading  may  cause  the  information  to  become  familiar.  This  cued   recognition  may  not  be  enough  for  independent  retrieval.       Memory  and  the  brain     Hebb’s  theory  –  Experience  causes  changes  at  the  synapse   • Repetitive  exposure  to  a  stimulus  causes  structural  changes,  greater  NT  release,  and   increased  firing.     Long-­‐term  potentiation  (LTP):  enhanced  firing  of  neurons  after  repeated  stimulation.  This  is  part   of  Hebb’s  findings.     • LTP  demonstrates  that  in  addition  to  structural  changes,  repetition  of  a  stimulus  causes   increased  responding  at  the  synaptic  level.       Areas  of  the  brain  where  memory  is  stored:     Frontal  cortex    –  working  memory       Medial  temporal  lobe  (MTL)  –  contains  several  structures  that  are
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