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Chapter 3

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Queen's University
PSYC 221
Yaroslav Konar

Page 48-76, 28 pages Page 1 of9 Chapter 3: Perception THE NATURE OF PERCEPTION • Perception: Experiences resulting from stimulation of the senses, from selecting, organizing, and interpreting these signals. Move from sensation (absorbing raw energy such as light through sense organs) to transduction (conversion of energy to neural signals, such as by photoreceptors and neurons to the occipital cortex), attention (concentration of mental energy to process incoming information), to finally perception. • Perception produces a modified representation of the world which is not an exact copy, influenced by (top-down) past experiences and expectations • Perception allows feats of cognition such as acquiring knowledge, storing knowledge in memory, and retrieving it later to accomplish various tasks such as problem solving or communication. Perception is the gateway to many types of other cognitions. BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING • Bottom-Up Processing: Processing that begins with receptor stimulation o Noisy info enters senses: Light modified and bent by lens, vitreous humour, etc. o Accessory structure modifies energy: Photoreceptors o Receptor transduces energy into neural response o Sensory nerve transmits coded activity to the CNS in afferent projections o Thalamus processes and relays info to higher areas: Lateral geniculate nucleus for vision o Specialized cortical areas receive signal o Perception of the world is created Bottom-Up Processing: Physiological • In vision, light is reflected off an object and absorbed by receptors in the retina; electrical signals are then transmitted from the receptor towards the visual cortex of the brain. • Nasal cross, temporal stay at the optic chiasm; the left visual field from both eyes ends up in the right hemisphere • 90% of retinal neurons are parvocellular-directed in the thalamus, relaying information about colour and fine details • There are specific neurons that respond best to simple shapes like lines or bars of specific orientations, called feature detectors • The feature detector response is part of an early stage of cortical processing, such as neurons responding to specific orientations of the branches and trunk of a tree • Retinotopic Mapping: Mapping of visual input from the retina to the occipital cortex. Cortical magnification of fovea, which has highest resolution of more important visual information. • Monkey injected with 2-deoxyglucose which is not absorbed but accumulates in active regions, can be observed with radiolabel. Logarithmic transformation of visual stimuli. • Similarly for hearing, tonotopic mapping: highest frequencies at base of cochlea, lowest frequencies at apex to rostral primary auditory cortex (front) and caudal (back), respectively. • Visual input is broken down into components in early processing: colour, orientation, spatial frequency, direction and speed of motion, and binocular differences. These are processed and pieced together in higher functions for perception. Bottom-Up Processing: Behavioural • Recognition-by-Components (RBC): Theory by Biederman, where perception of objects occurs due to perception of individual elementary features of geons, 3D volumetric building blocks that can be combined to create objects. • 36 geons can create 306 billion 3-geon objects! • This postulates that we can recognize an object if we are able to perceive just a few of its geons (e.g. basic shape of an airplane) or if portions of geons are obscured by the principle of componential recovery – if we can recover (see) an object’s geons, we can identify an object. • On the other hand, if the geons’ intersections and cross-sections are covered in a noisy environment and cannot be identified, we cannot recognize the object • RBC is an example of bottom-up processing because the basic units are simple, and the perception of these geometric objects can be related to patterns of stimulation on the retina. • FLAWS: Prior experience with objects needed to identify them from geons; different objects can be made of the same geons; geons best explain man-made objects and not natural objects such as animals BEYOND BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING Perception Depends on Additional Information • Additional processing is needed to combine the geons into objects, where the combinations can create various different objects, and to name these objects. In top-down processing, processing begins with a person’s prior knowledge or expectations, in efferent projections • Multiple personalities of a blob: The same blob is perceived as different objects depending on its orientation and context within a scene, due to application of knowledge about kinds of objects likely to be found. • When signals travel to the brain, signals other than those generated by the object’s features become involved such as those providing information about other parts of the same scene. Additionally, feedback signals associated with knowledge and expectations are transmitted from higher levels to influence incoming signals Perceiving Size: Taking Distance into Account Page 48-76, 28 pages Page 3 of 9 • Two creatures may cover the same distance on your retina, but they are perceived very differently due to the perception of their relative distances; the farther object is perceived as a larger size. • The system also takes into account the size of the object relative to other objects in the environment – in this case the relationship of the creatures to the railroad tracks. • Perceiving two similar objects at different distances with only one eye open makes the farther object seem smaller; using both eyes, better perception of depth and the relative distance between the two objects allow them to seem more similar in size. • Size Constancy: Perceive objects as remaining the same size even when they move to different distances. Animals have adapted to exploit this, e.g. puffer fish instill fear by increasing their size to alarm their opponent Other Top-Down Phenomena • Colour Constancy: A red apple looks red at midday, when the main illumination is white sunlight, and indoors under fluorescent light. This leads to contrast illusions such as on the checkerboard: top-down processing tells us from context and experience of checkerboards A must be darker than B and ignores the shadow. • In matching contrast task, most individuals pick a typical match that takes into account the surrounding high contrast context – this is much lighter than the factual answer. However, schizophrenic patients pick the true match as if ignoring top-down processing of context! Schizophrenics also seem to be resistant to the hollow face illusion. • Top-down heuristics can be tested with visual illusions such as this, and others like the upside-down face (Thatcher illusion) with lack of experience with upside down faces meaning more grotesqueness is needed to register Perceiving Odour Intensity: Taking Sniffing into Account • Would you rate a flower’s odour intensity between a weak sniff and a strong sniff? The ratings are actually identical, despite stronger sniffing causing more odour molecules to stimulate the receptors, so sniff intensity must be taken into account. TOP-DOWN PROCESSING • Sound signal for speech is generally continuous, and breaks in sound do not necessarily occur between words. Speech segmentation occurs when a listener familiar with the language, using their knowledge, is able to tell when one word ends and another begins – but a non-native listener cannot, having a different perception despite receiving identical sound stimuli. Helmholtz’s Theory of Unconscious Inference • Theory of Unconscious Inference: Some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions that we make about the environment. This accounts for how we create perceptions from stimulus information that can be seen in more than one way, with prior experience guiding our interpretation of a stimulus. • Likelihood Principle: We perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli we have received. We infer there is one rectangle covering another from experience with similar situations in the past, while a six-sided shape fitting onto the other is rarely encountered. • This involves an inferential process that resembles a conscious problem-solving process; Occam’s Razor where the hypothesis with the least number of assumptions is the simplest interpretation and the most likely to be correct. Gestalt Laws of Organization • Gestalt: To explain how we perceive objects, focus on perceptual organization in the way elements are grouped together to create larger objects, where the larger object is different from or more than the sum of its parts. E.g. Brain processes face holistically, easier to tell two features are different in context of a face than when presented discretely. • Law of Good Continuation: Points that, when connected, result in straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together and to follow the smoothest path; objects that are overlapped are perceived as continuing behind the overlapping object. E.g. A continuous piece of rope, Celtic knot patterns. This law is based on knowledge from what usually happens in the environment. • Law of Pragnanz: Law of good figure, or law of simplicity: every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible. For example, the Olympic symbol is seen as five overlapping circles and not more complicated shapes. • Similarity: Similar things appear to be grouped together. If one point in a scene is the same colour as another point, it is likely the two are on the same object. • Proximity: Objects near each other tend to be grouped together. • Familiarity: Things that form patterns that are familiar or meaningful are likely to be grouped together. In the emergence picture, a Dalmatian is gradually recognized; in The Forest Has Eyes, faces are recognized in the rocks. • Multistability: Tendency of ambiguous perceptual experiences to pop back and forth between two or more alternative interpretations. E.g. foreground and background of silhouette vase o A Necker cube can be seen to be rotating either clockwise or counterclockwise, but 60% see CW dominantly. Why? Innate bias of viewing from above o Kayahara illusion of a spinning dancer can also be seen CW or CCW. Changing the angle of elevation to -10 degrees (viewing from below) has 60% chance of seeing as CW, while +10 degrees (from above) has 60% chance of seeing as CCW – viewing from above bias again Gestalt Laws are Heuristics Page 48-76, 28 pages Page 5 of 9 • The Gestalt “Laws” have weak explanatory power, being descriptive and primarily based on demonstrations instead of concrete experiments. • Heuristic: Rules of thumb that provide a best-guess solution to a problem – but may not result in a correct solution every time. Algorithm: A procedure guaranteed to solve a problem, such as addiction and subtraction. • Most think of heuristics in terms of reasoning, problem-solving, and decision-making, but it is used in all types of cognition including perception. Similar operating principles from sharing the same nervous system. Taking Regularities in the Environment into Account • Regularities in the environment are characteristics that occur frequently. Physical Regularities • Physical regularities are regularly occurring physical properties of the environment, such as the presence of more vertical and horizontal orientations in the environment than oblique/angled (plants, horizon, buildings). Oblique effect where people perceive horizontals and verticals more easily than other orientations. • Light-from above heuristic where we tend to assume light is coming from above since this is usually the case in the environment, so circles that are light-coloured on the top appear to be bulging out. • Occlusion heuristic where we tend to interpret a
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