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Canada (161,680)
Psychology (1,112)
PSYC 241 (105)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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PSYC 241
Roderick C L Lindsay

Chapter 3- The Social Self **Continuation of written notes* Are There Gender and Race Differences? - social and cultural groups differ in their self-esteem - males showed higher self esteem than females but it was not a significant difference - E. Tory Higgins: our self-esteem is defined by the match or mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves o Actual self, ought self, and ideal self - Lists of traits can be used to predict self esteem in individuals - Self guides (ought list) are the traits that an individual believes they must possess - If you fall short of these standards you experience low self esteem and by even develop and affective disorder - Discrepancy between your actual self and you ought self leads to guilt, feeling ashamed, and resentful o You may suffer from anxiety-related disorders - Mismatch between your actual self and your ideal self may lead to disappointment, frustration, unfulfilledment and sadness o May even lead to depression - We all have some degree of self discrepancy - The more importance you place on a specific discrepancy the worse you feel - Self-awareness theory- the theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self- discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behaviour - The more self-focused people are the more they find themselves in a bad mood or depressed o May also be more prone to suffer from alcoholism, anxiety, and other clinical disorders - Self-awareness theory suggest two ways of coping: 1. Shape up by behaving in ways that reduce our self-discrepancies 2. Ship out by withdrawing from self-awareness - When people are self-focused they are more likely to behave in ways that are consistent with personal values or socially accepted ideals - Escaping from self awareness may involve drug abuse, excessive drinking, sexual masochism, spiritual ecstacy, binge eating and suicide - Watching TV is also a way to escape self awareness - Some individual tend to be more self aware than others - Private self-consciousness- a personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to
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