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Chapter 5

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PSYC 241
Roderick C L Lindsay

Chapter 5- Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination - Racism- prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another - Sexism- prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender over another - Stereotypes- a belief or association that links a whole group of people with certain traits or characteristics - Prejudice- negative feelings towards persons based on their membership to certain groups - Discrimination- behaviour directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group - Groups: o Ingroups- groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and identity o Outgroups- groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership, belonging, or identity - Although a reduction of racism has been seen it is still persistent - Old-fashioned racism is blatant, explicit, and unmistakable - Modern racism- a form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize - In ambiguous situations racial biases are more likely to emerge - Implicit racism- racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally - Perceptions of a member of a racial outgroup are associated with carious biases and emotional reactions - Gender stereotypes are distinct from other stereotypes because they are prescriptive rather than just descriptive - A double standard is the hallmark of sexism - Ambivalent sexism- a form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings o Hostile sexism- negative, resentful feelings about women’s abilities, value, and ability to challenge men’s power o Benevolent sexism- affectionate, chivalrous feelings founded on the potentially patronizing belief that women need and deserve protection - Two forms of sexism are positively correlated - Optimal distinctiveness theory- people try to balance the desire to belong and affiliate with others, on the one hand, and the desire to be distinct and differentiated from others on the other hand - Terror management theory- people cope with the fear of their own death by constructing worldviews that help preserve their self esteem - Camp study by Muzafer Sherif on 11-year-old boys and how they competed against each other - Realistic conflict theory- the theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources - Relative deprivation- feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others - Ingroup favoritism- the tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups - Social identity theory- the theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self esteem o Self esteem has two components: a personal identity and various collective or social identities based on the groups in which they belong - Predictions from social identity theory: o 1. Threats to one’s self esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism o 2. Expressions of ingroup favoritism enhance one’s self esteem - Collectivist draw sharper distinctions between ingroup and outgroup members than individuals do - Social dominance orientation- a desire to see one’s ingroup as dominant over other groups and a willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups - Social categorization- the classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes o Leads to overestimating the differences between groups and underestimating the differences within groups - Perceivers th
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