Textbook Notes (363,569)
Canada (158,433)
Psychology (1,098)
PSYC 241 (105)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
PSYC 241
Roderick C L Lindsay

Chapter 6: Attitudes - Attitude- a positive, negative or mixed reaction to a person, object or idea - Our attitudes can vary in strength along both positive and negative dimensions - Four possible reactions to attitude objects: o Positive attitude o Dual attitudes (ambivalence) o Indifference o Negative attitude - An example is when people feel both positive and negative attitudes at the same time - Forming positive and negative evaluations of people, places, objects and ideas happens like a reflex in most cases - People differ in the extent to which they react to stimuli in a positive or a negative way - People high in attitude tend to view daily activities in a judgemental way - Attitudes can help us judge whether something is good or bad, helpful or hurtful, and to be sought or left alone - Pre-existing attitudes towards people can make someone biased, close minded, and more resistant to change - Easiest way to measure an individuals’ attitude towards something is to use a self-report measure - Attitudes are sometimes too complex to be measured by a single question - Responses to attitude questions can be influenced by their wording, order and context in which they are asked, and extraneous factors - Attitude scales- a multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person’s attitude toward some object o Most popular being the Likert scale - Self report questionnaires cannot always be trusted because people may change their answers in order to look good to other people; they don’t like to admit their flaws - Bogus pipeline- a phony lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give truthful answers to sensitive questions - This device makes people answer more truthfully than when it is not used - You can also collect indirect, covert measures of attitudes that can’t be controlled o You can use facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language - Measures of arousal reveal the intensity of one’s attitude toward an object but not whether it is positive or negative - Facial electromyography (EMG)- an electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes - Some muscles of the face contracts when we are happy, and others contract when we are sad this is why EMG is used - Electrical activity in the brain may also assist in the measure of attitudes - Brain waves are used to see if an individual feels negatively about something, or positively - Implicit attitudes- an attitude, such as prejudice, that one is not aware of having - Implicit association test (IAT)- a covert measure of unconscious attitudes derived from the speed at which people respond to parings of concepts—such as black or white, good or bad - Studies suggest that people may be predisposed to hold certain attitudes - The attitudes that a person holds generally come from their surroundings, what their parents believe, and some parts of it may be genetic - People can form positive or negative attitudes towards a neutral object that is linked to emotional stimuli - Attitudes and behaviour don’t always match - Richard LaPierre’s experiment with Chinese couple around the united states to see how many restaurants would reject them service, only 1 did, but 90% said they would when asked later on o Showed a lack of correspondence between attitude and behaviour - Attitudes correlate with behaviour only when attitude measures closely match the behaviour in question - Theory of planned behaviour- the theory that attitudes toward a specific behaviour combine with subjective norms and perceived control to influence a person’s actions - Behaviour is also influences by subjective norms (our believes about what others think we should do) - Specific attitudes combine with social factors to produce behaviour - Attitudes people hold most passionately tend to be of things that: o 1. Directly affect their own self interest o 2. Relate to deeply held philosophical, political, and religious values o 3. Concern close friends, family, and social ingroups - People behave in ways that are consistent to their attitudes when they are well informed - Strength of an attitude relies on the amount of information that the individual has on it, and how it is acquired - Attitudes are stronger when they arise out of personal experience - An attitude can be strengthened by an attack against it from a persuasive message o This shows the individual that they can defend their attitude and therefore they hold on to it more - Strong attitudes are easily brought to mind - Persuasion- the process by which attitudes are changed - Central route to persuasion- the process by which a person thinks carefully about a communication and is influenced by the strength of its arguments - Peripheral route to persuasion- the process by which a person does not think carefully about a communication and is influenced instead by superficial cues - People who are smart or high in self esteem are better able to learn a message but less likely to let it change their attitude - Less smart people my accept the message but may not be able to understand it - Elaboration is something that may help persuade someone - On the central route to persuasion t
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 241

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.