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Chapter 4

Chapter 4-Social Perception.docx

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PSYC 241
Tara Mac Donald

CH 4: SOCIAL PECEPTION Sept 30/2011 – Pg 93-122 Nonverbal Behavior - Refers to how people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without words. o Ex. Facial expression, tone of voice, gestures, body positions and movements, use of touch, eye gaze o Mirror neurons: respond when we perform an action and when we see someone else perform the same action, giving us the ability to feel empathy. Facial Expressions of Emotion Evolution and Facial Expressions - Non verbal forms of communication were species-specific and not culture-specific and facial expressions were vestiges of once useful physiological reactions o Ex. Ekman and Friesen went to New Guinea and tested the South Fore tribe by giving them photographs of Americans expressing 6 emotions and had them match the emotion to the story. This was then done vice versa. Both cases were successful. Why is decoding sometimes inaccurate? Affect blends - People frequently display affect blends where one part of their face registers one emotion while another part registers a different emotion. - Some people purposely hide emotions Culture and the Channels of nonverbal communication - Display rules are particular to each culture and dictate what kinds of emotional expressions people are supposed to show o Ex. American cultural norms discourage emotional displays in men like grief or crying. o Ex: Cultures vary in what is considered normative use of personal space – most Americans like to have a bubble of open space whereas in other cultures, strangers think nothing of standing right next to each other to the point of touching. - Emblems are hand or arm gestures (i.e. sticking up middle finger) have clear definitions but differ among Multichannel Nonverbal Communication - Social Interpretations Task videotape is composed of 20 scenes of naturally occurring nonverbal behaviour - After each scene, the viewer is asked about the people’s relationship to each other o Ex. Watching a scene where 2 women are playing with a baby o Which one is the mother? Based on nonverbal behaviour - Extraverts are more accurate decoders of nonverbal cues Gender and Nonverbal Communication - Women are better at both decoding and encoding but men are better at detecting lies - Social role theory: when members of society expect men and women to have certain attributes consistent with their role – women; more nurturing, friendly. Implicit Personality - Schemas help us form impressions quickly, without having to spend weeks with people to Theories: Filling In Blanks figure out what they are like - Implicit personality theory: ideas about what kinds of personality traits go together Culture and Implicit Personality Theories - We presume ‘what is beautiful is good’, that people with physical beauty will also have a host of other wonderful qualities. - In Western culture, ‘artistic personality’ implies a person is creative, intense, and temperamental, the Chinese doesn’t have that schema but they have a shi gu personality. Causal Attribution: - Attribution Theory is the study of how we infer the causes of other people’s behaviour Answering the ‘Why’ Question The Nature of the Attribution Process - When a father yells at his daughter, we can make one of 2 attributions: 1. Internal attribution : the cause of the father’s behaviour was something about him – his attitude 2. External attribution: something in the situation, not the father’s personality that caused his behaviour. - Heider noted we tend to see the causes of a person’s behaviour as residing in that person because the situation is often hard to see and hard to describe. The Covariation Model: internal vs External Attributions - Covariation model : examining multiple instances occurring at different times and situations Covariation model to see why someone behaved that way to you. o Ex. When a friend lends others her car but not you. Consensus information -
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