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Chapter 9

Chapter 9-Group processes.docx

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PSYC 241
Tara Mac Donald

CH 9 GROUP PROCESSES Nov 15/11 1. What is a group? - A group consists of 2 or more people in the same place at the same time who interact and interdependent because their needs and goals cause them to influence each other. Composition and function of a group Social Norms: - Social norms are a powerful determinant of our behaviour - All societies have norms about which behaviors are acceptable, some of which all members are expected to obey and some of which vary from group to group. Social Roles - These are shared expectations in a group about how particular people who occupy certain positions are supposed to behave - There are costs to social roles when people get so far into a role that their personal identities are lost. Prison Abuse at Abu Ghraib Phillip Zimbardo - The prison guards were under tremendous stress, had received little supervision and were asked to set their own rules for interrogation Gender roles: - Changing women’s roles can cause conflict when many women are expected to do it all – maintain a career while raising the children and cleaning the house - This affects personalities – raises assertiveness. Group cohesiveness - The qualities of a group that bind members together and promote mutual liking. - Cohesiveness can help the group do well if they’re required to cooperate together (i.e. football team) - Cohesiveness can also get in the way of optimal performance if maintaining good relations among group members becomes more important than finding good solutions to a problem. 2. Social facilitation - The tendency to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated. Cockroaches Robert Zajonc - Placed a bright light at one end of a runway and timed how long it took for the roach to escape the light by running to the other end where it would scurry into a darkened box - In the Simple maze condition, other roaches placed in plastic boxes next to the runway performed the task faster when the other roaches were there than when they were by themselves - In the Complex maze condition, it took longer for roach to complete the maze. - Zajonc believes that when we are aroused by other people, it’s easier to do well on a task that’s second nature to you Mere Presence theory - Presence of others makes us more alert and aware that others will require us to respond - Applies to both animal and human studies Evaluation apprehension theory - People are often concerned about how other people are evaluating them - You feel like others are evaluating you and will feel embarrassed if you do poorly and pleased if you do well - Evaluation produces mild arousal. - Presence of people not enough, they have to be evaluating you. Distraction Conflict theory - Sources of distraction will put us in a state of conflict because it’s difficult to pay attention to 2 things at the same time, which produces arousal - Doesn’t have to be a person to create the same effect, even a flashing light causes social facilitation. - If you are well prepared then you should perform in presence of others. 3. Social loafing - The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks when they’re in the presence of others and their individual performance can’t be evaluated. - Expend less effort on simple tasks because they experience less arousal - Do better on complex tasks because evaluation apprehension is reduced and they experience less arousal as well. Gender and Culture in social loafing - Women are higher than men in relational interdependence which is the tendency to focus on and care about personal relationships with other individuals. Thus, women are less likely to slack off - Loafing occurs more in Western cultures than Asians because Asians define themselves in terms of relationships to other people Clapping - When an individual had to cheer or clap by themselves, they created more Latane sound pressure than when doing so in a group. Difficult mazes - Individuals and groups (avg of 2 persons scores) were evaluated based on Jackson & Williams time it took to finish simple or difficult mazes. - In the simple maze: individual took less time to complete - In the complex maze: group took less time to complete ** Opposite to social facilitation effect because group is on your side rather than evaluating you. 4. Deindividualization - Deindividuation is the loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people can’t be identified leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts - Face paint, costumes, being in a mob hides identity. - Deindividuation makes people feel less accountable for their actions because it reduces the likelihood that any individual will be singled out and blamed. - When group members are together and deindividuated, they’re more likely to act on the groups norms instead of other norms, i.e. that of the society. - On the web, profanity has become common in comments because people are anonymous Halloween studies - Children were placed in a group or alone were given the chance to take extra Halloween candy. - Researchers also asked them what their name was, where they lived to identify them - In the alone group that was identified, children took less candy than non- identified - In the group, identified children also took less but non-identified group children took the most. Is it always bad? - The social identity model states that deindividuation can lead to positive behaviours too i.e. nurses in nurse uniform make them act more caring because they feel they have to act the norm. 5. Group Decisions - Process loss any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving, which can occur if groups don’t try hard enough to find out who the most competent member is and end up relying on someone who really doesn’t know what they’re talking about. - Group polarization is the exaggeration through group discussion of initial Group polarization tendencies in the thinking of group members - Groups tend to focus on the information they share and ignore facts known to only some members of the group. - Each participant was given the same packet of information to read, data indicate that candidate A was the best choice for office - Almost all Ps knew that candidate had 8 positive qualities and 4 negative Candidate for student body qualities making him superior so when they met, they chose candidate A. president - In unshared condition, Ps received different packet of information and each person knew candidate had 2 positive and 4 negative qual
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