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PSYC 241 Ch5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination.pdf

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PSYC 241
Roderick C L Lindsay

PSYC  241  –  Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination     Chapter  5   Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination     Racism:  prejudice  and  discrimination  based  on  a  person’s  racial  background;  or  institutional  or   cultural  practices  that  promote  the  domination  of  one  group  over  another.       Sexism:  prejudice  and  discrimination  based  on  a  person’s  racial  gender;  or  institutional  or   cultural  practices  that  promote  the  domination  of  one  gender  over  another.       Stereotypes:  beliefs  or  associations  that  link  whole  groups  of  people  with  certain  traits  or   characteristics.       Prejudice:  negative  feelings  about  others  because  of  their  connection  to  a  social  group.     Discrimination:  negative  behaviours  directed  against  persons  because  of  their  membership  in  a   particular  group.       Note  the  ABCs:   • Prejudice  is  associated  with  affect  (feelings)   • Discrimination  is  associated  with  behaviours     • Stereotypes  are  associated  with  cognition  (beliefs).       Group:  two  or  more  people  perceived  as  having  at  least  one  of  the  following  characteristics:   • Direct  interactions  with  each  other  over  a  period  of  time   • Joint  membership  in  a  social  category  based  on  sex,  race,  or  other  attributes   • Sharing  a  common  fate,  identity  or  set  of  goals     Ingroups:  groups  with  which  we  identify  or  perceive  belonging  to.     Outgroups:  groups  other  than  the  ones  we  identify  with.       “Old-­‐fashioned  racism”  is  regarded  as  being  blatant,  explicit,  and  unmistakable     Modern  racism:  form  of  prejudice  that  surfaces  in  subtle  ways  when  it  is  safe,  socially  acceptable,   and  easy  to  rationalize.       Aversive  racism:  ambivalence  between  sincerely  fair-­‐minded  attitudes  and  beliefs  and  largely   unconscious  negative  feelings  and  beliefs.       An  example  of  modern/aversive  racism:   Students  were  presented  a  case  of  either  a  white  man  or  a  black  man  committing  a  robbery.  When   the  evidence  was  unambiguous,  they  were  just  as  likely  to  find  the  white  or  the  black  man  guilty.   When  the  evidence  was  ambiguous,  they  more  often  found  the  white  man  innocent  and  the  black   man  guilty.     1   PSYC  241  –  Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination     Implicit  racism:  racism  that  operates  unconsciously  and  unintentionally.       Since  a  person  is  largely  unaware  if  they  are  exhibiting  implicit  racism,  the  measurement  of  the   construct  must  be  covert.  The  IAT  is  used,  see  below.       Implicit  Association  Test  (IAT):  used  to  measure  the  extent  to  which  two  concepts  are   associated.       People  generally  exhibit  less  explicit  racism  as  they  grow  up.  Over  the  course  of  development,   however,  implicit  racism  stays  roughly  the  same.       One  implicit  race  bias  is  perceiving  hostility  from  faces  of  a  particular  race.  A  study  showed   students  racially  ambiguous  faces  with  different  emotions.  Students  high  for  implicit  racism  (as   measured  by  the  IAT)  were  more  likely  to  categorize  an  angry  face  as  black.  Also,  white  people   with  high  implicit  racism  are  quicker  to  perceive  hostility  in  a  black  face  than  in  a  white  face.       Why  is  it  that  divides  between  racial  and  ethnic  groups  promote  stronger  feelings  of  hostility,  fear,   and  distrust  than  between  other  groups  (such  as  age  or  gender)?   • There  is  less  mixing  between  groups   • There  is  a  large  stigma  against  appearing  racist.  This  means  that  there  is  stronger  tension   and  emotions  associated  with  interracial  interaction.     People  with  high  implicit  racism  have  shown  greater  amygdala  activation  when  presented  with   pictures  of  outgroup  individuals,  but  only  when  the  person  in  the  picture  appear  to  be  making   direct  eye  contact.       Interracial  interactions  with  high  implicit  racism   • Increased  blood  flow   • Hypervigilence  to  the  other  person’s  emotions  –  does  this  person  like  me?   • Generally,  what  would  be  a  smooth-­‐flowing  interaction  can  be  exhausting  and  awkward   • Ironically,  trying  so  hard  to  be  seen  as  not  racist  can  be  perceived  oppositely     Metastereotypes:  thoughts  about  an  outgroup’s  stereotypes  of  your  own  group.       [...]     As  with  racism,  old-­‐fashioned  blatant  displays  of  sexism  are  less  socially  acceptable  but  implicit   sexist  biases  are  still  common.  (Note  that  in  some  parts  of  the  world  blatant  sexism  is  still   common).       The  major  difference  between  sexist  beliefs  and  other  stereotypes  is  that  gender  stereotypes  are   prescriptive  instead  of  descriptive.  That  is  to  say,  they  dictate  what  a  man  or  woman  should  be   like,  and  not  necessarily  what  they  are  like.       2   PSYC  241  –  Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination   Sexism  has  much  more  ambivalence  than  racism,  because  males  and  females  interact  constantly  –   they  grow  up  together,  work  together,  form  relationships,  and  raise  families  together.     Ambivalent  sexism:  characterized  by  attitudes  about  women  that  reflect  negative,  resentful   beliefs  and  affectionate,  patronizing  beliefs.   • Stereotypes  of  women  are  generally  more  positive  than  male  stereotypes,  but  these   stereotypes  attitudes  and  behaviours  are  less  valued  in  domains  such  as  business.       The  definition  of  ambivalent  sexism  breaks  down  into  two  elements:   • Hostile  sexism:  negative,  resentful  feelings  about  women’s  abilities,  value,  and  ability  to   challenge  men’s  power.   • Benevolent  sexism:  affectionate,  chivalrous  feelings  founded  on  the  patronizing  belief  that   women  need  and  deserve  protection.     • These  two  elements  are  positively  correlated,  and  since  they  harbour  contrasting  positive   and  negative  beliefs  they  combine  to  form  ambivalent  sexism.     Many  people  do  not  see  benevolent  sexism  as  a  problem  but  it  fuels  sexism,  contributes  to   negative  reactions,  and  perpetuates  traditional  gender  roles  and  stereotypes.       In  the  workplace  ...   • Women  are  less  likely  to  get  traditionally  male  jobs   • Women  are  likely  to  be  paid  less   • There  is  a  “glass  ceiling”,  meaning  that  women  are  less  likely  to  reach  high  positions  of   power  in  their  field.       [...]     Causes  of  the  problem:  intergroup  and  motivational  factors     Throughout  our  evolutionary  history  humans  have  felt  the  need  to  belong  to  small  groups  of   similar  others  for  protection.  When  the  instinct  to  protect  ourselves  is  triggered  we  are  more   likely  to  fear  the  presence  of  someone  in  an  outgroup  than  in  our  ingroup.     • One  study  found  that  Canadians  rated  Iraqis  as  more  threatening  and  intimidating  when   they  did  the  evaluation  in  a  dark  room  relative  to  those  who  did  the  evaluation  in  a  bright   room.     • The  darkness  effected  the  evaluation  of  high-­‐threat  traits  (hostile,  untrustworthy)  but  not   low-­‐threat  traits  (ignorant,  close-­‐minded)     Optimal  distinctiveness  theory:  people  will  try  to  balance  the  desire  to  be  distinct  from  others   and  the  desire  to  affiliate  or  belong  with  others.       Terror  management  (constructing  of  certain  views  to  ease  the  fear  of  death)  can  enhance  ingroup-­‐ outgroup  hostilities.  Thinking  about  death,  bodies,  or  terrorism  can  trigger  ingroup  biases.         3   PSYC  241  –  Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination       Robbers  Cave  field  study  of  intergroup  conflict   • Conducted  by  Muzafer  Sherif  (1954)   1. Boys  were  brought  to  a  summer  camp.  They  gave  themselves  a  camp  culture  including  a   name  and  for  a  week  did  bonding  activities.   2. After  a  week  the  boys  were  told  that  there  was  another  group  of  boys  also  at  the  200  acre   camp.  The  two  groups  were  called  the  “Rattlers”  and  the  “Eagles”.   3. The  groups  were  pitted  against  one  another  in  various  tournaments.  Points  were  awarded   to  the  winning  team  at  the  end  of  each  event.  A  trophy  was  promised  to  the  team  with  the   most  points  at  the  end.   4. Almost  immediately  the  friendly  play  turned  into  hostile  war.  Group  flags  were  burned,   cabins  were  ransacked,  and  a  riot-­‐like  food  fight  broke  out  in  the  mess  hall.   5. The  researchers  found  that  instilling  the  hostility  was  easy  but  restoring  the  peace  was  not.   Neither  saying  nice  things  about  the  other  group  nor  meetings  under  noncompetitive   circumstances  worked.     6. The  peace  was  eventually  restored  by  introducing  superordinate  goals  –  mutual  goals   that  could  only  be  achieved  through  cooperation  between  the  groups.     • In  the  course  of  three  weeks,  the  boys  had  gone  through  an  elaborate  cycle  of  intergroup   relations.  They  had  formed  close-­‐knit  groups,  gone  to  war,  and  made  peace.       Superordinate  goals  have  been  shown  to  diminish  conflict  in  real-­‐life  settings  as  well.  Greece  and   Turkey  have  long  been  at  conflict,  but  when  they  were  both  devastated  by  an  earthquake  their   cooperative  efforts  to  salvage  the  damage  and  save  lives  bridged  the  divide.       Realistic  conflict  theory:  idea  that  competition  for  valuable  but  limited  resources  breeds  hostility   between  groups.       Relative  deprivation:  feelings  of  discontent  aroused  by  the  belief  that  one  fares  poorly  compared   with  others.       Ingroup  favouritism:  tendency  to  discriminate  in  favour  of  ingroups  over  outgroups.     • This  was  demonstrated  in  the  dot  overestimator/underestimator  experiment  in  which   participants  were  more  likely  to  award  points  to  members  of  their  own  group.       In  the  dot  overestimator/underestimator  experiment  it  became  clear  that  conflict  between  groups   can  arise  over  trivial  matters.  Minimal  groups  are  groups  of  people  that  are  similar  based  on   trivial  and  minimally  important  qualities,  such  as  overestimating  the  number  of  dots.  In  the   experiment  there  was  no  competition  for  limited  resources,  no  long-­‐standing  conflict  between  the   groups,  and  an  arbitrary  distinction  between  them.  Nonetheless  biases  were  shown  favouring  the   ingroup  (ingroup  favouritism).  This  supports  the  social  identity  theory  (see  next  page),  that  no   realistic  conflict  or  relative  deprivation  need  exist  in  order  for  ingroup-­‐outgroup  hostilities  to   arise.         4   PSYC  241  –  Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination         Social  identity:  part  of  one’s  identity  that  is  defined  by  the  groups  to  which  they  belong.       Social  identity  theory:  people  favour  ingroups  over  outgroups  to  enhance  self-­‐esteem.  We  feel   greater  self-­‐esteem  when  we  are  personally  successful  and  when  we  affiliate  with  a  successful   group.       Social  identity  theory  can  be  positive  in  that  we  can  feel  proud  of  belonging  to  a  group  even   without  receiving  direct  benefits  from  others.  Unfortunately  the  consequence  is  that,  to  feel  proud   about  “us”,  we  often  feel  the  need  to  belittle  “them”.       Based  on  the  above,  two  predictions  are  made  about  the  social  identity  theory:   • Threats  to  one’s  self-­‐esteem  heighten  the  need  for  ingroup  favouritism   • Expressions  of  ingroup  favouritism  heighten  one’s  self-­‐esteem     Collectivists  may  show  ingroup  favouritism  but  are  less  likely  to  be  derogative  towards  another   group  in  order  to  raise  their  social  self-­‐esteem.       Social  dominance  orientation:  a  desire  to  see  one’s  group  as  dominant  over  other  groups  and  a   willingness  to  adopt  cultural  values  that  facilitate  oppression  over  other  groups.     • In  other  words,  individuals  in  groups  that  have  certain  advantages  that  other  groups  do  not   have  may  be  motivated  to  justify  and  protect  those  advantages.       System  justification:  processes  that  endorse  and  legitimize  existing  social  arrangements.  In  other   words,  justifying  beliefs  that  protect  the  status  quo.       Causes  of  the  problem:  cognitive  and  cultural  factors     Social  categorization:  classification  of  persons  into  groups  on  the  basis  of  common  attributes.     • This  saves  time  in  understanding  a  person  and  can  guide  future  interactions,  but  at  a  cost:   • Stereotypes   • Overestimation  of  the  differences  between  groups  and  underestimation  of  the  differences   within  groups     There  is  more  genetic  variation  within  races  than  between  them.  People  tend  to  miss  this  fact  as   well  as  social,  cultural,  and  historical  variables.       Outgroup  homogeneity  effect:  tendency  to  assume  that  there  is  greater  similarity  among   members  of  outgroups  than  among  members  of  ingroups.     • This  can  be  caused  by  little  exposure  to  the  other  group  –  someone  is  less  likely  to  notice   subtle  differences  between  individuals  when  the  outgroup  as  a  whole  is  unfamiliar.     5   PSYC  241  –  Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination   • You  may  not  be  exposed  to  a  broad  sample  of  people  from  the  outgroup.  If  you  are  only   exposed  to  part  of  the  group  that  have  specific  beliefs  then  you  may  generalize  these  beliefs   to  the  entire  group.       Dehumanizing:  failing  to  attribute  human  emotions  to  another  person.  Some  people  do  this  to   members  of  a  racial  outgroup.       Illusory  correlation:  an  overestimate  of  the  association  between  variables  that  are  only  slightly   or  not  at  all  correlated.  How  does  this  happen?   • People  tend  to  overestimate  the  correlation  between  two  distinct  variables  because  the   novel  association  sticks  out  in  a  memorable  way.  For  example,  mental  patients  are  a  group   of  people  that  most  others  do  not  have  contact  with  and  murder  is  a  relatively  uncommon   behaviour.  Therefore  a  person  is  more  likely  to  remember  a  mental  patient  committing  a   murder  than  another  person  committing  a  murder  or  a  mental  patient  doing  something   more  common.     • People  overestimate  the  association  between  variables  that  they  expect  to  go  together.  For   example,  if  shown  pictures  of  10  men  and  10  women  who  got  into  car  accidents,  people   who  think  women  are  worse  drivers  are  more  likely  to  remember  a  high  number  of  women     Stereotypes  can  be  maintained  by  attributions;  in  other  words  by  how  they  explain  the   behaviours  of  others.     • When  someone  acts  the  way  that  they  would  be  expected  to  according  to  a  stereotype   people  are  less  likely  to  account  for  situational  factors.  But  if  someone  performs  better  than   expected  based  on  stereotype  situational  factors  are  overestimated.       Subtyping:  when  someone  does  not  fit  the  mold  a  stereotype  would  put  them  in,  often  they  are   classified  as  being  an  exception  to  the  larger  group.   • Instead  of  accommodating  new  information  to  expand  a  schema,  information  is  assimilated   into  an  existing  schema.     • For  example,  women  who  play  in  rough  contact  sports  do  not  diversify  the  image  of   nurturing  women,  but  are  rather  taken  as  an  exception  of  the  prescribed  gender  role.     When  a  behaviour  is  ambiguous,  confirmation  biases  cause  people  to  use  stereotypes  to  describe   the  motives  of  the  behaviour.  In  general,  confirmation  biases  cause  us  to  interpret,  seek,  and   create  information  that  seems  to  confirm  our  expectations.  For  example,  consider  the  following:     The  mother  yelled  at  the  16-­‐year-­‐old  girl.   A  construction  worker  yelled  at  the  16-­‐year-­‐old  girl.     A  lawyer  behaved  aggressively.     A  homeless  man  behaved  aggressively.   A  Boy  Scout  grabbed  the  arm  of  an  elderly   An  ex-­‐con  grabbed  the  arm  of  an  elderly  woman   woman  crossing  the  street.     crossing  the  street.       Stereotypes  of  the  type  of  behaviour  we  expect  from  different  groups  cause  these  similar   statements  to  provoke  ideas  of  very  different  behavioural  motivations.  The  reader  interprets  the   statement  in  a  way  that  is  consistent  with  their  previous  understanding  of  the  subject.  This  is  an   example  of  a  confirmation  bias.     6   PSYC  241  –  Stereotypes,  Prejudice,  and  Discrimination     Stereotypes  can  cause
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